All accepted contributions are listed below in the following tables; one for talks and the other for posters and pre-recorded talks. Please click on the titles to expand the abstracts, and click again to collapse.

The tables are sorted by the last name of the presenter.




Presenter  Title and Abstract 
Alonso Herrero
Resolving the tori and nuclear winds of nearby active galactic nuclei by Almudena Alonso Herrero, Santiago García Burillo and GATOS.
In the current paradigm of radio-quiet AGN, a nuclear dusty molecular torus/disk is part of a gas flow cycle where gas is brought in from the host galaxy (inflow) and part is driven out through the influence of the AGN (outflow). Within the Galaxy Activity Torus and Outflow Survey (GATOS), we are using ALMA and mid-infrared observations with physical resolutions of a few tens of parsecs to characterize the dusty molecular torus and polar dust emission of nearby Seyfert galaxies. The ALMA observations resolve dusty molecular disks/tori with typical sizes of 42pc and molecular gas masses of ~6×10^5 Msun. The Eddington ratios and ALMA-derived nuclear hydrogen column densities of half the sample are favorable to launching dusty winds, according to numerical simulations. This is in agreement with the detection of mid-infrared extended emission approximately along the polar direction in these Seyferts. We also find evidence, for the first time, of nuclear-scale molecular gas deficits in higher luminosity and/or higher Eddington ratio Seyferts in our sample. We interpret this as an imprint of AGN feedback on the torus-scale molecular gas. All these results provide observational support for the torus+wind scenario. New ALMA observations and future ELT near and mid-IR spectroscopic will allow us to probe the hot, warm and cold dust and molecular gas emission as well as the molecular and ionized gas kinematics in the close environments of active galactic nuclei. For nearby Seyferts, the attained physical scales of a few parsecs will be close to the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole.
Resolved stellar population studies of Centaurus A by Giuseppina Battaglia, Oscar Gonzalez, Ed Jeffrey.
One of the science cases for the development of HARMONI, and of the ELT itself, is to expand the study of resolved stellar populations to galaxies out to a few Mpc, in order to probe environments other than the Local Group as well as accessing galaxy types not represented in our immediate neighborhood. In this contribution I will discuss the prospects for chemo-dynamical studies of resolved stellar populations in a system like Centaurus A, the closest large early-type galaxy. The results will be based on simulations carried out using HSIM, aimed in particular at understanding the trade-offs between spatial scale, field-of-view and crowding.
Pushing spatially resolved stellar kinematics to Cosmic Noon with ELT IFUs by Rachel Bezanson, LEGA-C Survey Team, PFS Survey Galaxy Evolution Working Group.
In recent years, a number of large IFU surveys - e.g., ATLAS3D, CALIFA, MANGA, SAMI - have provided spatially resolved views of the distribution and motions of gas and stars within nearby galaxies. At the same time, the community has made great strides to broaden our spectroscopic horizons - pushing even resolved studies of statistical samples of galaxies out to ~cosmic noon. I will briefly discuss recent studies of the resolved stellar kinematics of star forming and quiescent galaxies out to z~1 from the LEGA-C spectroscopic survey. However for massive galaxies we expect the bimodal structures to be set at the time of quenching and transformation — cosmic noon (z~2). Although NIRSpec on JWST may provide glimpses of this process in action, AO-assisted IFU instruments on the ELTs, especially those with multiplexing capabilities, will answer fundamental questions about the formation of the Hubble sequence due to the faint and compact nature of z~2 galaxies. Next generation massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys conducted on 8-10m class telescopes, like the Prime Focus Spectrograph survey, will precisely map galaxies within the cosmic web at exactly this critical epoch. I will argue that these surveys will provide the optimal context and target lists for high-spatial resolution follow-up IFU studies with next generation ELTs.
High resolution spectroscopy of spatially resolved exoplanets by Jayne Birkby, Sophia Vaughan, Ben Sutlieff, Eleanor Spring.
High resolution spectroscopy (HRS) has proven to be a powerful technique for the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres, revealing both their composition and dynamics. Its success however is even further augmented in combination with other observational methods, particularly high contrast imaging (HCI) on the largest ground-based telescopes. In this talk, I will review the technique of combining HRS+HCI, and discuss the ground-breaking advances it has already made in the study of giant exoplanet atmospheres. I will then highlight its potential for finding biosignatures gases in nearby rocky worlds, and for mapping features in exoplanet atmospheres. I will discuss our current work on path finder observations with the LBT/NALES+vAPP integral field spectrograph to observe exoplanet variability due to features rotating in and out of view. I will then further highlight results from our simulations for ELT instruments, including HARMONI, in characterizing the atmosphere of our nearest exoplanet, Proxima b. This focuses on detecting the reflected light from the planet, and I discuss its associated challenges at high spectral resolution and its potential for highly robust detections of oxygen and other key biosignature gases.
The dark-matter content of star-forming galaxies at z=1. Outlooks for Harmoni by N F. Bouché, D Krajnovic, E Emsellem, R Bacon, T Contini, B Epinat, J. Richard.
Understanding the angular momentum (AM) and the dark matter (DM) content of galaxies is a fundamental quest in galaxy formation. In galaxies beyond the local universe, recent deep IFU observations show that SFGs have a low dark matter content, albeit at masses greater than 1e10.5 solar masses. Here, we will show that SFGs at z~1 with masses from 1e9 to 3e10 from the MUSE eXtremely Deep Field (MXDF) have high dark-matter fractions. Thanks to an advanced disk-halo decomposition technique that works on 3D data directly, we find that DM profiles with cores, i.e. inconsistent with the NFW profiles. We can test the properties of DM against models for core formation, shedding light on the nature of dark-matter. We will present and discuss mock (Harmoni) observations from numerical simulations that will demonstrate the prospects of next generation ELT instruments.
ELT/METIS and the AGN torus by Leonard Burtscher, Leiden Observatory Maarten Baes, University of Gent Bernhard Brandl, Leiden Observatory Emeric Le Floc'h, CEA Saclay Gilles Orban de Xivry, University of Liège.
The Mid-infrared E-ELT Thermal Infrared imager and Spectrograph (METIS) is one of the three first-light instruments selected for the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and will cover the thermal infrared wavelength range, from ca. 3 - 13 microns in the terrestrial L, M, and N bands. It will be a versatile instrument featuring diffraction-limited imaging and long-slit spectroscopy in the L/M and N bands as well as high spectral resolution (R ~ 100,000) integral field spectroscopy in the L and M bands. Its spatial resolution of 25 (70) mas in the L (N) band corresponds to a linear scale of 1 (3) parsec in nearby (10 Mpc) galaxies. For nearby AGNs, METIS forms the missing link between JWST and ground-based interferometry in both resolution and sensitivity. METIS will primarily observe continuum emission from dust at 100-800 K, but it also sensitive to the emission lines in its wavelength range, e.g. Brackett alpha, coronal lines like [SiIX] and [ArVI] and [AlVI], molecular lines of CO and H2O, and broad silicate emission and absorption lines. As such it is well matched to tackle several of the big outstanding questions in current AGN research including "What triggers AGN activity?" and "How do AGN outflows connect to the host galaxy?".
Mapping CGM metallicity throughout the haloes of galaxies with ELTs: critical constraints on the baryon cycle by Alex Cameron.
A basic prediction of the baryon cycle is that gas expelled as outflows is metal-enriched compared to relatively metal-poor gas inflowing gas which fuels star formation. Accordingly the distribution of metals throughout galaxy haloes is intrinsically tied to evolutionary processes such as accretion, star-formation, and feedback. While there has been much indirect observational evidence supporting this picture (e.g. metallicity scaling relations), direct observational constraints on the metallicities of gas flows throughout galaxy haloes have proven much more challenging. To date, metallicity measurements in the “circum-galactic medium” (CGM) have largely been limited to absorption line measurements from background quasars. These rely greatly on serendipity meaning that assembling large, uniform samples is extremely difficult. To reach a strong consensus on how metal enrichment in galaxies proceeds throughout the baryon cycle we instead require CGM metallicity measurements from emission lines such that they can be mapped out for individual galaxies rather than averaged across inhomogeneous samples. I will present results from Keck/KCWI observations where we achieve this in an extreme (and observationally favourable) case for Mrk 1486 — a low mass starburst galaxy with very low metallicity. We observe metal-enriched outflows along the minor-axis in Mrk 1486 which are at least 4.3 times more metal rich than co-planar inflowing gas, the first such measurement made with a single self-consistent metallicity measurement technique. Contextualising these results will require similar measurements for a more representative sample of galaxies which is not feasible with existing instruments, instead demanding the improved sensitivity of future ELTs.
Resolved interstellar medium at the Galactic Center through integral field spectroscopy by Anna Ciurlo.
The Galactic Center, because of its proximity, is a unique and exemplary laboratory to study the heart of galaxies. In particular, the energetic dynamics and intense radiation of this region produce extreme conditions for the interstellar medium (ISM). These conditions are fundamental to understanding the accretion flux onto the central supermassive black hole and the effect of the black hole on its environment. Here I present the structure and dynamics of the ISM from few parsecs to sub-parsec scales, unveiled through spectro-imaging data gathered by the VLT and Keck and a new method: a regularized 3D fit (CubeFit). These results serve as a test case for future observations with the ELTs which will resolve the centers of nearby galaxies, inaccessible today. CubeFit injects as much a priori information as possible into the spatial gradients of emission lines, allowing to recover low signal-to-noise emission lines. In the central parsec, CubeFit allowed me to detect a surprising emission of molecular gas in this strongly ionized environment. These results show that this region is complex and fragmented and that matter appears under different forms and conditions. In the central 0.05 parsec, I highlighted several compact emission sources orbiting the central black hole. This population of "G-objects" requires a common formation mechanism. The most likley hypothesis is that these dust-enshrouted objects are the redisulas of binary systems, merged under the influence of the black hole. The G-objects can thus illustrate dynamical processes undergoing in the region. Moreover, they can potentially trigger accretion, given their close encouter with the central black hole and their large envelope of gas and dust. These results illustrates the physical and dynamical processes that could be at play in other galaxies and the tools that can be used to investigate them with ELT observations, showcasing the potential of integral field spectroscopy with the ELTs.
Dalla Bonta'
ELT AO-assisted integral field spectroscopy for supermassive black holes in quiescent galaxies and AGN by Elena Dalla Bonta'.
I will discuss how it will be possible to determine the supermassive black hole mass function with dynamical methods beyond the local universe for both quiescent galaxies and active galactic nuclei. Measurements of black hole masses through ELT AO-assisted integral field spectroscopy will effect the direct comparisons needed with results obtained via interferometry (such as those obtained with GRAVITY) and with reverberation mapping. This will enable high-confidence extension to high redshift and allow us to refine secondary methods to understand the puzzling evolution of galactic nuclei within their host galaxies.
Observing Ex-situ Populations Across the Mass-Size Plane in Resolved Galaxies by Thomas Davison.
Galaxy mergers are instrumental in dictating the final mass, structure, stellar populations, and kinematics of galaxies. Cosmological galaxy simulations indicate that the most massive galaxies at z=0 are dominated by high fractions of ‘ex-situ' stars, which formed first in distinct independent galaxies, and then subsequently merged into the host galaxy. Using spatially resolved MUSE spectroscopy we have quantified and mapped the ex-situ stars in thirteen massive Early Type galaxies. We use full spectral fitting together with semi-analytic galaxy evolution models to isolate the signatures in the galaxies' light which are indicative of ex-situ populations. Using the large MUSE field of view we find that all galaxies display an increase in ex-situ fraction with radius, with massive and more extended galaxies showing a more rapid increase in radial ex-situ fraction. These results are in line with predictions from theory and simulations which suggest ex-situ fractions should increase significantly with radius at fixed mass for the most massive galaxies. With this technique reaching maturity we can now expect to apply this methodology to new generations of data. Increasingly populated samples of well resolved galaxies out to more distant reshifts will allow us to better study galaxy evolutionary history, and the radial trends in deposition of ex-situ stars.
Resolved Stellar Spectroscopy with Extremely Large Telescopes: Andromeda as a Stepping Stone to the Local Volume by Ivanna Escala, Karoline M. Gilbert, Evan N. Kirby, Jennifer Wojno, Puragra Guhathakurta.
The next-generation of ground-based telescopes will provide an extra two to three magnitudes of depth into the universe, bringing a plethora of Local Volume galaxies at megaparsec distances into reach for spectroscopic studies of their resolved stellar populations. First-light instruments such as TMT/WFOS and GMT/GMACS, and second-generation instruments such as ELT/MOSAIC, will enable detailed studies of kinematics and chemical abundances for individual stars in these galaxies to probe their formation histories and dark matter distributions when combined with photometry from wide-field imaging surveys. These extremely large telescopes (ELTs) will also improve spectroscopic data quality and statistics for distant galaxies within the Local Group, extending accessible stellar populations from the red giant branch down to main sequence turn-off stars. In this talk, I will provide an overview of the anticipated scientific advances from ELTs in the context of galactic archaeology and near-field cosmology. In particular, I will discuss how current spectroscopic studies of the Andromeda system will serve to connect the Local Group to the Local Volume in terms of expected observations. Thus, Andromeda will serve as the template for our understanding of galaxy assembly and evolution in this new observational regime.
Resolved stellar kinematics of galaxies around cosmic noon by B. García-Lorenzo, A. de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A. Monreal-Ibero.
Spectroscopic Surveys have largely characterized the stellar kinematics of nearby galaxies (z<0.1) for a wide range of masses (M*∼10^8−10^12 Msolar) and morphological types. At 0.1 < z < 0.8, a few studies report spatially resolved stellar kinematics compatible with rotating stellar disks. Around or beyond the cosmic noon there are only measurements from integrated or stacked spectra of massive quiescent galaxies. The incoming generation of the 30-40 meter-class telescopes will enable resolving the stellar kinematics of high redshift galaxies. In particular, HARMONI low-resolution bands could likely resolve the stellar kinematics of galaxies around cosmic noon with similar spatial and velocity resolutions than current studies for nearby and intermediate redshift galaxies. We explore, through simulations, the capabilities of HARMONI to unveil the stellar morpho-kinematic properties of galaxies around cosmic noon. We evaluate the exposure times to properly trace the stellar kinematics of galaxies with masses in the range (M*∼10^10−10^12Msolar).
Realistic mocks for starforming regions in high-redshift galaxies by Oleg Gnedin, Xi Meng, Rubén Sánchez Janssen, Macarena del Valle-Espinosa.
Uncovering the origins of star formation in high-redshift galaxies is one of the current challenges of extragalactic astrophysics, which will be enabled by forthcoming observations with ELT HARMONI and other instruments. High spatial and spectral resolution will allow determination not only of the total star formation rate of galaxies across comic time, but also the properties and clustering of star forming regions within it. To maximize success of this program it is imperative to train observational strategies using mock observations of realistic simulations. We will present first results of the end-to-end analysis of mock datasets created with ultrahigh resolution simulations of galaxy formation that resolve massive star cluster complexes and their HII regions on scales below 100 pc. These complexes dominate the production of ionizing radiation in high-redshift galaxies. The expected structure of the ISM is porous, allowing part of the radiation to escape host galaxies, however the amount depends strongly on the line-of-sight. Overlap of several star forming regions along the same line-of-sight also complicates the inference of the properties of massive star clusters. Detailed characterization of these effects will provide the necessary theoretical base for the interpretation of HARMONI observations.
Resolved Stellar Populations of the Nuclear Bulge with HARMONI by Oscar Gonzalez (UKATC) Giuseppina Battaglia (IAC).
The stellar populations, as traced by detailed chemical abundances and kinematics of individual stars of the nuclear bulge of the Milky Way remain poorly explored because of the large amounts of reddening (with more than 3-4 magnitudes extinction even in K-band). In this talk, we will describe our latest simulation results that show how the capabilities of ELT-HARMONI will enable us to carry a high spatial and spectral resolution survey of the Nuclear Star Cluster of the Milky Way. We will discuss how such a remarkable dataset would allow us to perform a chemo-dynamical characterisation of all the stellar populations, ranging from the young to the oldest stars in this complex Galactic region, constraining the formation history of the nuclear star cluster in high detail and thus becoming an important bench-mark for unresolved nuclear clusters in external galaxies.
On the Viability of Determining Galaxy Properties from Observations by Kearn Grisdale.
Observations are the doorway to exploring galaxies in our Universe. Knowledge of how observational measurements of any given galaxy translate back to its physical properties is therefore fundamental to understanding galaxy evolution. Using our preparatory post-processing pipeline LCARS, which combines high spatial resolution (~35 pc) hydrodynamical cosmological simulations with the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY, we produce mock observations of a z~2 galaxy in more than 80 gas emission lines (including H-alpha, [CII] 158 and [NII]205). By comparing the properties measured from these observations to those calculated directly from the simulation we are able to determine how the former connects to the latter. The high spatial resolution allows for modelling of emissions from sub-structures within the galaxy, i.e. molecular clouds and star formation regions. Furthermore, by observing the same galaxy over a period of several hundred million years we are able to show how the physical properties, such as the ratio of ordered rotation to turbulent motion (i.e. v/sigma), evolve during a merger and how the evolution is reflected in the observed properties. In this talk I will: - outline our pipeline, - compare how physical and observational properties compare for our target galaxy, - discuss the use of the v/sigma ratio as a measure of minor merger history.
Solar System observations with HARMONI by O. Groussin, B. Neichel, A. Lau, P. Vernazza, T. Fusco, J. Carter, O. Mousis, A. Carlotti, S. Douté, N. Ligier, A. Hidalgo Valadez, F. Clarke, N. Thatte, L. Fletcher.
The HARMONI instrument is a visible and near-infrared integral field spectrometer, with multiple scientific objectives, including unique capabilities for solar system observations. In this presentation, we will present an overview of the possibilities offered by HARMONI for solar system objects, with a few highlights on specific science cases. We will present simulated images of Io and Pluto to study their geology, and different spectra of Io volcanoes, all performed with the Harmoni simulator HSIM. We will also emphasize the importance of deconvolution to maximize the scientific return.
Kinematics of Young Stellar Systems using Extremely Large Telescopes by Priya Hasan.
Star clusters are evolving n-body systems. The early dynamics of these systems influence star formation and the spatial distribution of stars in clusters. In an earlier work, we studied the distribution of non-coeval stars in a cluster. With present Gaia data, it is possible to resolve stellar populations and coupled with spectroscopy from Extremely large Telescopes it would be possible to study their interplay. As a member of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), International Science Driven Team (ISDT), I shall define the science case, requirements and the expected precision in answering possible questions about the evolution of star clusters in terms of astrometry and high resolution spectroscopy with the TMT specifically as well as other large telescopes.
What can HARMONI tell us about a typical star forming galaxy at cosmic noon by Laurence Hogan, Kearn Grisdale, Julien Devriendt, Ismael Garcia Bernete, Miguel Pereira Santaella, Adrianne Slyz, Dimitra Rigopoulou, Niranjan Thatte.
Star forming galaxies at z = 2 - 3 ('cosmic noon') allow us to probe the universe at the peak of cosmic star formation, an epoch in which galaxies formed the bulk of their current stellar mass. Understanding the mechanisms driving the huge rates of star formation at this redshift is vital for explaining the cosmic star formation history, and HARMONI's unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity and high angular resolution will play a key role in our evolving picture of galaxy evolution. In this talk we combine the HARMONI simulator (H-SIM) with a new post processing pipeline LCARS (Light from Cloudy Added to RAMSES), which adds photons to the NewHorizon cosmological simulation, to perform mock observations of a typical star forming galaxy at z ~ 2. We explore the morphology, dynamical status of the interstellar medium (ISM), presence of inflows/outflows and extinction within the galaxy and investigate how accurately HARMONI observations can recover these properties via the Hα and Hβ emission lines. We track how observational signatures (such as the v/σ ratio) change over time as the galaxy undergoes a minor merger and discuss what these signatures allow us to infer about the physical characteristics, dynamical support and merger status of the galaxy. We also show how the presence of dust affects these observations, which is important as much of the star formation in the high-z universe is dust enshrouded. This work will help interpret future HARMONI observations and translate the information from spatially resolved emission lines back to the underlying state of the ISM and star formation.
Direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets with the ELT/HARMONI high-contrast module by Mathis Houllé, Arthur Vigan, Alexis Carlotti, Élodie Choquet, Faustine Cantalloube, Mark W. Phillips, Jean-François Sauvage, Noah Schwartz, Gilles P. P. L. Otten, Isabelle Baraffe, Alexandre Emsenhuber, Christoph Mordasini.
Combining high-contrast imaging with medium-resolution spectroscopy has recently been shown to significantly boost the direct detection of exoplanets. In this context, HARMONI, one of the first-light instruments to be mounted on ESO's ELT, will be equipped with a single-conjugated adaptive optics system to reach the diffraction limit of the ELT in H and K bands, a high-contrast module dedicated to exoplanet imaging, and a medium-resolution (up to R = 17 000) optical and near-infrared integral field spectrograph. When combined, these systems will provide unprecedented contrast limits at separations between 50 and 400 mas. We will present in this poster the results of extensive simulations of exoplanet observations with the HARMONI high-contrast module. We used an end-to-end model of the instrument to simulate observations based on realistic observing scenarios and conditions. We then analyzed these observations with the so-called "molecule mapping" technique, which has shown in recent studies its efficiency to disentangle planetary companions from their host star and boost their signal. Although HARMONI has not been fully designed for high-contrast imaging, we will show that it should greatly outperform the current dedicated instruments, such as SPHERE on the VLT. We detect planets above 5σ in 2 hours at contrasts up to 16 mag and separations down to 75 mas in several spectral configurations of the instrument. Simulating planets from population synthesis models, we could image in this amount of time companions as close as 1 AU from a host star at 30 pc and as light as 2 MJup. We show that taking advantage of the combination of high-contrast imaging and medium-resolution spectroscopy through molecule mapping allows us to access much fainter planets (up to 2.5 mag) than the standard high-contrast imaging techniques. We also demonstrate that HARMONI should be available for near-critical exoplanet observations with this method during 60 to 70% of telescope time at the ELT.
Which detection limits for HARMONI’s high-contrast imaging mode? An experimental approach. by Adrien Hours, Alexis Carlotti, David Mouillet, Laurent Jocou, Fabrice Pancher, Thibaut Moulin, Alain Delboulbe, Sylvain Guieu, Patrick Rabou, Kjetil Dohlen, Jean-François Sauvage, Elodie Choquet, Mamadou N'Diaye.
On ELT/HARMONI near-infrared integral field spectrograph, a high-contrast observing mode is designed to push the current limits of exoplanet detection and characterisation. The ELT will indeed provide the angular resolution to probe the region of primary interest for giant planets around many stars. The collecting area also offers the SNR needed to take full benefit of spectral resolution up to R = 17000. This resolution will allow the characterisation of a large number of young giant exoplanets as close as 50mas to their host star and up to 106 times fainter, in the 1.25-2.45µm spectral range and will allow the derivation of their mass-luminosity functions through precise photometry and thus determine the mechanisms of their formation. In addition to looking at exoplanets detected with direct imaging instruments, HARMONI will be complementary to GAIA and Radial Velocity instruments such as SPIROU. High contrast observations can be obtained by combining the dedicated High Contrast Module (HCM) operating together with the single conjugate adaptive optics subsystem (SCAOS). Even though atmospheric refraction induces a significant image shift on the detector, high contrast is obtained thanks to a pupil plane coronagraph, and anti-saturation focal masks optimized according to the observing bandpass and separations. The contrast is then mainly limited by (a) the SCAO residuals, (b) the Non-Common Path Aberrations (NCPA) between the SCAOS and the science path, (c) the intensity of the diffracted light in the vicinity of the target star and (d) the efficiency of the post processing of the data. At IPAG, we adopt an experimental approach capable of reproducing these limitations under HARMONI’s conditions. In addition to the end-to-end simulations already carried out, experimentation will enable us to finely understand the effects of these limitations, to optimise the operations and to better estimate the achievable performance. For this purpose, we developed a first dedicated test bench to test the limits of fine aberration sensing: it includes the capability to mimic the expected aberration chromaticity, noise and variability. A complementary bench will produce realistic focal plane multi-wavelength images as an input to test various signal extraction methods.
Spatially resolving the gas flows and physical conditions with circumgalactic emission nebulae around quasar hosts in rest-optical emission at z=0.5-3 by Sean Johnson and the CUBS & MUSEQuBES teams.
The circum-galactic medium (CGM) is at the nexus of the gas inflows and outflows that regulate galaxy evolution. Consequently, the CGM provides an ideal laboratory for studying galaxy fueling, feedback, and galaxy interactions. Historically, studies of the CGM primarily relied on background absorption spectroscopy which provides a sensitive probe of intervening gas but lacks the spatial information needed to differentiate the origins of CGM gas flows. Recently, the advent of wide-field optical integral field spectrographs (IFS) enabled the discovery of giant (>50 kpc) scale CGM nebulae around quasars through emission from Lya at z>2 and [O II] at z~1, providing 3D (2 spatial + 1 velocity) observations of the CGM. Developing a robust understanding of the metallicities, densities, kinematics, and origin of these CGM nebulae requires IFS spectroscopy in the near-IR to measure non-resonant HI Balmer emission and a suite of metal ion emission lines such as [N II], [O III], [O II], and [Ne V]. With its unique combination of red-through-near-IR coverage, giant collecting area, and variety of FoV/spatial-resolution modes, ELT+HARMONI will provide unparalleled ability to unambiguously characterize gas flows around quasars from the CGM (>10 kpc) to the ISM (<1-10 kpc) in non-resonant emission. In this talk, I will review recent results from rest-optical emission studies of the CGM at z~0.5 and highlight our ability to extend such studies to z>1 with the ELT.
Mapping AGN-driven outflows in the high-redshift Universe with future near-infrared IFS by Darshan Kakkad.
Several theoretical and observational campaigns over the last decade have established the fact that active galactic nuclei (AGN) at the center of galaxies have the ability to regulate the baryon cycle and, consequently, the star formation of the host galaxies. Such a process, called AGN feedback, can manifest in the form of multi-phase galaxy wide outflows driven by the radiation pressure of accreting AGN and/or radio jets. Observations at z~2 have been of particular interest for AGN feedback studies. This is because the epoch is characterised by the maximal activity in the black hole growth and star formation in the Universe, so radiation pressure driven winds are believed to be a common place. Sinfoni survey for Unveiling the Physics and Effect of Radiative feedback (SUPER) is a near-infrared AO-assisted IFS follow-up of X-ray selected AGN host galaxies at z~2 with SINFONI/VLT. The high spatial resolution observations (PSF~2 kpc) have revealed the presence of kiloparsec-scale ionised gas outflows with velocities >1000 km/s traced via the [OIII]5007 emission line. Furthermore, the host galaxy star formation, trace via narrow Halpha emission, shows an anti-correlation with the location of fast outflows, suggesting a quenching process at play. With the SUPER survey, such ionised outflow studies in AGN host galaxies have been pushed to their current limit at cosmic noon. Future IFS instruments on board ELTs with higher sensitivity, such as HARMONI, will allow to pursue such studies to even fainter galaxies, which may form the bulk of the AGN population at z~2. The high spatial resolution with HARMONI will also allow us to resolve outflows down to sub-kiloparsec scales, not resolved with the currently available instruments. The proposed talk will explore the development of HARMONI/ELT science cases for AGN population to trace the properties of ionised outflows as a function of radius at cosmic noon, which can be used to differentiate between different outflow launching mechanisms currently proposed in theoretical simulations.
Dissecting star clusters with adaptive optics: MUSE paves the way for HARMONI by Sebastian Kamann, Liverpool John Moores University.
I will present the results of an ongoing survey of Galactic globular clusters with the MUSE narrow field mode. Using adaptive optics (AO), we are able to perform spectroscopy of the cluster centres at unprecedented spatial resolution. This allows us to study the central kinematics of our target clusters in great detail and address questions like: Do intermediate-mass black holes exist in globular clusters? How many stellar-mass black holes survive inside star clusters for a Hubble time? Which kinematic signatures characterise clusters that have undergone core collapse? In a recently completed study of the evolved globular cluster M15, we revealed that the cluster core is strongly rotating and kinematically decoupled from the rest of the cluster. Currently, we are comparing our MUSE data of the cluster M80 to sophisticated dynamical models, some of which suggest the presence of a massive black hole with about 4000 solar masses in the centre. My talk will also highlight some of our technical work, in particular the application of dedicated models for the point spread function of AO observations. In combination with HARMONI, such models will enable us to extend our studies to extragalactic star clusters and nearby galaxies in the era of the Extremely Large Telescope.
The Local Environments of Type Ia Supernovae in the ELT-era by Lisa Kelsey Mark Sullivan .
Analyses of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found puzzling correlations between their standardised luminosities and host galaxy properties: SNe Ia in high-mass, passive hosts appear brighter than those in lower-mass, star-forming hosts. This correlation is also present when looking at ‘local’ apertures which probe the immediate stellar populations of the explosion environment. We examine the host galaxies of SNe Ia in the Dark Energy Survey cosmological sample, obtaining photometry in a series of local apertures and for the global host galaxy. We study the differences in these environmental properties, such as stellar mass and rest-frame − colours, and their correlations with SN Ia parameters including Hubble residuals, finding that local properties recover more of the remaining SNe Ia luminosity dispersion than global properties. In particular, we find that blue SNe in locally blue environments provide the most homogeneous sample for precision cosmology. It is vital to understand these relationships, both for gaining further knowledge of the astrophysics of SNe Ia and for cosmological standardisation, as these effects will bias our measurements including that of the Hubble constant. For such analysis in the era of the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope, which will have pristine measurements of SNe Ia, we need precise measurements of stellar populations. The forthcoming generation of Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will allow for such high redshift analysis with high spectroscopic sensitivity, enabling better constraints on SNe Ia local environments. Such telescopes will allow us to obtain spectra at each location, enabling measurements of properties such as mass, colours, star formation rate, metallicity and H-alpha based age at the exact SN location. This will be critical for high redshift SNe, and for determining local environmental differences between SNe Ia siblings in the same galaxy. The ability for high angular resolution measurements in the near infrared will provide important evidence in the ongoing discussion about the role of dust on SNe Ia standardisation.
Star-formation and AGN feedback in local ULIRGs using HARMONI by Isabella Lamperti.
Local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) host the most intense starbursts and bright active galactic nuclei (AGN). They are gas-rich mergers which can be considered as scaled down counterparts of high-z major mergers. Thus, ULIRGs are ideal local targets to study in detail the effects of AGN and star-formation feedback during the major mergers that define the evolution of the most massive galaxies. We will present simulations of HARMONI NIR H+K bands observations of nearby ULIRGs at z < 0.15 , with a spatial resolution of ~100pc (~50mas). The Pa-alpha and Br-gamma lines observed in the K-band can be used to trace the star-formation rate. Combining these lines with comparable spatial resolution cold molecular gas maps from ALMA (CO 2-1), it will be possible to study the resolved star-formation laws and the spatial variations in star-formation efficiencies. Additionally, we will show simulations of the coronal lines [SiVI], that could be used to trace ionisation cones escaping from the deeply dust-obscured AGN of ULIRGs. Combining maps of the hot molecular gas (H2 2.12 micron) with cold molecular gas maps from ALMA, it will also be possible to trace the heating and dissociation of the molecular gas by UV/X-ray radiation and shocks.
Examining the Nebular Dust Attenuation for Super Star Clusters in Extreme Star-Forming Environments by Sean Linden, Daniela Calzetti, Rupali Chandar, Bradley Whitmore, Debra Elmegreen, Janice Lee, David Cook, Angus Mok, and Leonardo Ubeda.
The nebular attenuation curve underpins many of the most fundamental measurements we can make of the ISM in galaxies. It is therefore crucial to directly probe the shape and normalization of this curve across cosmic time. In fact, the global f = Estar(B-V)/Eneb(B-V) extinction ratio can differ by an order of magnitude between observations of local and high-redshift galaxies. Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), which are found primarily to be nearby gas-rich disk galaxies involved in major merger events, are the ideal laboratories for high-resolution studies of extreme environments; conditions which may be analogous to the ISM properties of high-redshift galaxies. By combining broadband UV-NIR and narrow-band recombination line imaging for 13 galaxies in the Clusters, Clumps, Dust, and Gas Survey (CCDG) we measure f=0.4-0.9 for ~1000 super star clusters (SSCs) with M > 10^4 and ages between 3-10 Myr. These results are broadly consistent with high-redshift studies, and suggest that the dust geometry of individual SSCs is what drives the variations in the nebular attenuation curves observed in galaxy surveys such as MANGA. Finally, we demonstrate how future ELTs will allow us to simultaneously constrain both the reddening and the shape of the dust curve for SSCs in LIRGs, where narrow-band HST observations are limited to only a single pair of Balmer emission lines (Hα/Pβ).
Spatially-resolved spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets with ELT-HIRES by Christophe Lovis.
An outstanding goal in the field of exoplanets is the characterization of the atmospheres and surfaces of temperate rocky planets orbiting nearby stars. In this contribution we will describe the prospects for reflected-light spectroscopy of such objects using the SCAO-IFU mode of ELT-HIRES, which is one of the top science drivers for this instrument. Simulations indicate that tens of exoplanets will be amenable to atmospheric characterization with HIRES, including the detection of potential biosignatures on our nearest neighbour Proxima b. We will also present RISTRETTO, a pioneering high-resolution spectrograph for the VLT, fed by an XAO system working at the diffraction limit of the telescope. The main science goal of RISTRETTO is to demonstrate reflected-light spectroscopy of nearby exoplanets for the first time, thereby serving as a pathfinder for ELT-HIRES and ELT-PCS. Additional science cases for RISTRETTO include the characterization of young, accreting protoplanets through spectrally-resolved H-alpha observations, and spectroscopy of small-scale structures on various Solar System objects.
A young metal-poor star-burst at z = 4.7745 in the MUSE eXtreme Deep Field by Jorryt Matthee & the MUSE GTO.
One of the key quests of observational cosmology is to characterise the properties of the first generations of stars in galaxies in the very distant Universe (z>3). Most observational approaches so far study the properties of gas in distant galaxies, relying on the relative brightness of emission-lines compared to the stellar continuum. However, inferences of the properties of the (massive) stars powering these emission-lines are strongly dependent on photoionisation modelling. In order to prepare for extremely sensitive spectroscopic observations that the ELT will undertake, we present a case study of an L* galaxy at z = 4.7745 in the MUSE eXtreme Deep Field that has been observed for a total of 140 hours with VLT/MUSE. We detect the (stellar) continuum with good signal-to-noise ratio and with R ≈ 3000. Besides very strong Lyman-α emission, we detect several relatively weak blue-shifted interstellar absorption lines indicating outflows and measure the systemic redshift with fine-structure lines. We also detect the stellar NV P Cygni profile and the CIV emission-line doublet, both indicating the presence of very young stars. We show that a young population (∼ 20 Myr) with a low metallicity (Z = 0.007 − 0.14Z⊙) is required to explain the spectrum. However, the best-fit metallicity depends significantly on the (assumed) shape of the star formation history. Based on this study, I will discuss the importance and necessity of having access to (resolved) spectroscopic data in various wavelength bands in order to obtain meaningful measurements of the properties of composite stellar populations in galaxies in the very distant Universe in the future. I will also use empirical data to argue that galaxies with young and metal-poor stellar populations can be pre-selected efficiently by selecting galaxies on their Lyman-α equivalent width.
The many circumstances of resolved stellar feedback in the nearby Universe by Anna McLeod.
Feedback from massive stars plays a central role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. Conversely, different galactic environments play a central role in regulating the impact of massive stars. Yet, despite a solid qualitative understanding of feedback, our quantitative knowledge remains poor. Until recently, only a small number of star-forming regions had adequate observational information on both gas and stars needed for detailed feedback studies. Over the last years, instruments like MUSE, KMOS, and SITELLE have driven true progress in the fields of resolved stellar populations and stellar feedback in nearby galaxies by unlocking spatially resolved studies of orders of magnitude more star-forming regions than previously possible. In this talk I will present recent results of large IFU nearby galaxy surveys, showcasing how these can be used to simultaneously characterize the feedback-driven interstellar medium and individual feedback-driving stars up to Mpc distances, and I will discuss how this enables the first empirical quantification of the interdependence between stellar feedback and the environments massive stars form in. Within the context of the above, I will then discuss how upcoming ELT spectroscopic instruments, particularly the next generation of integral field units, will improve on and work in perfect synergy with already existing facilities and instruments.
Galaxy evolution in high definition: sub-kpc resolution kinematic surveys across 10 billion years of cosmic time by Trevor Mendel, Caroline Foster, Claudia Lagos, Emily Wisnioski.
The high spatial and spectral resolution of next-generation integral field spectrographs (IFS) will fundamentally change how we study the evolution of galaxy kinematics, chemistry, and structure. I will showcase recent results from the MAGPI MUSE Large Program demonstrating the importance of resolved IFS observations at intermediate redshift, and use these as a backdrop to discuss the future prospects for kinematic surveys with MAVIS, GMTIFS, HARMONI, and MOSAIC at large lookback times. The factor of 5-10x improvement in spatial resolution delivered by these facilities will allow us to tackle key questions that are out of reach for current instrumentation, including the origin and evolution of turbulence in the ISM, the production and diffusion of metals, and the growth of compact stellar systems over cosmic time.
Cool evolved stars with the ELTs: waiting for Betelgeuse to dim again ? by M. Montargès, E. Lagadec, E. Cannon, P. Kervella, A. Chiavassa, A. de Koter.
Mass loss from evolved stars is a key process for both stellar and Galactic evolution. It drives the final fates of low mass stars, and the circumstellar environment it forms affects the supernovae characteristics. It is also one of the main sources of gas and dust enrichment for the interstellar medium. Despite being a key process, it is still not fully understood and stellar evolution models are not able to reproduce it. Mass loss from evolved stars is a combination of various complex processes such as pulsation, convection, gas and dust formation. To understand this key and complex mechanism, one needs high angular and spectral resolution multi-epoch short-spaced observations of the surface and nearby environment of these objects. The photosphere and close circumstellar environment can evolve within weeks or months. During the last years, observations of nearby giant stars with extreme adaptive optics imager such as SPHERE/VLT enabled us to directly resolve the surface and neary environnement of stars from both low and high mass during their late stages. While we obtained spectacular results, such as a “movie” of dust formation between us and the emblematic red supergiant Betelgeuse (Montargès et al., 2021, Nature), we are still limited by the lack of angular and spectral resolution. HARMONI will thus be a perfect instrument to map the surface of such stars and finally provide strong constraints on these mass loss mechanisms.
Evolution of stellar populations in the inner parts of galaxies by Justus Neumann, Daniel Thomas, Claudia Maraston, Dimitri Gadotti, Francesca Fragkoudi and further members of the MaNGA and TIMER collaborations.
Integral field unit instruments with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, such as MUSE, and high multiplex capabilities, such as eBOSS/MaNGA, have significantly improved our understanding of resolved stellar population (SP) properties in nearby galaxies. In this talk, I will first present results of a detailed study of star formation histories in bars of 9 nearby galaxies from the MUSE TIMER survey. I compare our data to state-of-the-art cosmological zoom-in simulations of barred galaxies and show that our MUSE observations can be explained by the dynamical influence of the bar on SP with different ages and kinematic properties. Furthermore, I show an analysis of SP based on >2.6 million spatial bins from 8000 galaxies in the MaNGA survey. We simultaneously reproduce the well-known global stellar mass-metallicity relation and find a significant spatially-resolved stellar surface mass density-metallicity relation. Reconstructed star formation histories from nearby galaxies help us to predict what we will be able to observe directly in the distant universe. With HARMONI and MOSAIC we will be able to push high-resolution studies of the inner parts of galaxies and large-scale galaxy surveys to high redshifts. In particular, we will be able to probe the evolution of SP and star formation in bars directly at z~1-2, right after their formation, as well as to probe the evolution of the global and resolved mass-metallicity relation at different lock-back times.
Resolving AGN outflows at the cosmic noon with ELT/HARMONI by Michele Perna, Santiago Arribas .
AGN are thought to regulate the growth of their host galaxies through feedback mechanisms, playing a key role especially at z~1-3, the peak of galaxy assembly. At these redshifts, studies have focused on the detection and characterisation of ionised outflowing gas ([OIII]5007, Ha) on kpc scales within the host. However, most of the current AGN surveys at z> 1 cannot spatially resolve these outflows at sub-kpc scales; consequently, they cannot investigate the complex interactions between outflows and star formation activity. Moreover, in these studies, several assumptions have to be made (e.g. on the unconstrained/unresolved outflow morphology) to infer the outflow effects (e.g. mass loading factor, outflow kinetic power). To really understand how feedback works and measure relevant quantities such as the outflow energetics at the cosmic noon it is necessary to spatially resolve the outflows, constraining their geometry and interaction with the surrounding ISM on scales of about a few 100s pc. In this talk, we present a study of the ELT/HARMONI capabilities in resolving outflow structures at z>1. We use 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane (based on Bae & Woo 2016) simulating the observed Ha kinematics in obscured AGN. In particular, a set of input parameters defining the outflow (e.g. cone inclination w.r.t. the host disk, opening angle, kinematic model) and the host galaxy properties (e.g. inclination, dynamical mass, obscuration) is used to simulate mock galaxies to be managed by the simulation pipeline HSIM.
Probing the structure and dynamics of distant massive star-forming galaxies with MICADO and HARMONI: From galaxy to clump scales by Sedona Price.
Over recent years, spatially-resolved imaging and spectroscopy have revealed much about the structure and dynamics of star-forming galaxies (SFGs), from the present day out to the peak of cosmic star formation. The combination of HST imaging with IFU observations (both seeing limited and adaptive optics-assisted), particularly using VLT/KMOS and SINFONI, have revealed that many massive SFGs, even out to z~1-3, exhibit rotating disks and smooth stellar distributions. Despite their disky structures, these distant SFGs differ from those in the local universe: they are thicker, more gas-rich, with elevated turbulence and low galaxy-scale dark matter fractions, and many exhibit large clumps and massive bulges. However, many of the physical details about these higher-redshift, massive SFGs' structures and dynamics remain unclear, as current observations can only resolve down to ~kpc scales. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the ELT will for the first time enable us to study these distant SFGs on ~100pc scales. By combining multiband imaging from MICADO and IFU spectroscopy from HARMONI, we will be able to probe not only the substructure of the large star-forming clumps but also examine the galaxies' inner kinematics. These observations will enable us to better understand the physical processes regulating both star formation and mass and angular momentum transport, at the time when these galaxies are forming the majority of their stars and building up their massive bulges.
The dark matter content of star-forming galaxies at cosmic noon by Annagrazia Puglisi; Ugne Dudzeviciute; Mark Swinbank.
Galaxy rotation curves are a major tool for studying the distribution and content of baryonic and dark mass within galaxies. Kinematic studies of galaxies in the local Universe provide one of the key evidences for dark matter, by showing that the enclosed dynamical mass of galaxies rises far beyond their optical radius. However, there is less direct evidence for a similar dark matter dominance at high redshift, with recent results suggesting that the dark matter content of galaxies at cosmic noon might be much lower. To measure the fraction of dark matter in galaxies in the distant Universe, we are undertaking the KMOS Ultra-deep Rotational Velocity Survey (KURVS), a Large Programme that exploits the combined IFU and multiplexing capabilities of KMOS to obtain rotation curves of z~1.5 main-sequence galaxies out to large radii, owing to ~100 hours of integration time at the Very Large Telescope. These data are a factor of ~10 deeper than previously obtained data, and allow us to measure individual Hα rotation curves up to ~15 kpc. In my talk I will present results from this project that uses state-of-the art instrumentation and I will show how it will benefit from the increased sensitivity and resolution offered by next generation instruments at the largest telescopes. I will also discuss key synergies with JWST and ALMA.
ELT Spectroscopy: Are Supernovae the Dust Producer in the Early Universe?" by Jeonghee Rho (SETI Institute), Thomas R. Geballe (NSF's National Optical Infrared Astronomy Research Lab.), Melissa Shahbandeh and Peter Hoeflich (Florida State U.), Maryam Modjaz and Marc Williamson (New York U.), Regis Cartier (NSF's National Optical Infrared Astronomy Research Lab.), Stefano Valenti (U. of California, Davis), Aravind Pazhayath Ravi (U. of Texas, Arlington), D. Andrew Howell (Las Cumbres Observatory), Danny Milisavljevic (Purdue U.), Morten Andersen (NSF's National Optical Infrared Astronomy Research Lab.), Matthew Millard and Sangwook Park (U. of Texas, Arlington), Tamas Szalai (U. of Szeged), Scott Davis (U. of California, Davis), Hongjun An and Heechan Cha (Chungbuk National U.), Sung-Chul Yoon, Harim Jin, and Seong Hyun Park (Seoul National U.), Ilse De Looze and Jeremy Chastenet (Ghent U.) .
Whether supernovae are a significant source of dust has been a long-standing debate. The large quantities of dust observed in high-redshift galaxies raise a fundamental question as to the origin of dust in the Universe since stars cannot have evolved to the AGB dust-producing phase in high-redshift galaxies. In contrast, supernovae (SNe) occur within several million years after the onset of star formation. We present our ongoing Gemini near-IR observations of several SNe in time sequences. A sequence of eleven near-IR spectra of Type IIP SN2017eaw from previous Gemini programs enabled us to identify the mass of the progenitor and has provided an important template for the temporal evolution of CO and dust in a Type IIP SN over an extended period. We will present several Type Ibc observations, including SN2020oi. Type Ic SN 2020oi at only day 63 detects strong, first overtone CO and a rising K-band continuum, which is one of the first unambiguous dust detections from an SN Ic. The CO requires mixed-ejecta and still optically thick, while the dust is likely formed in Si-S layers. We will focus on CO and dust formation in SN ejecta with the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) perspective during the era of LSST and JWST. ELT will allow us to study a diverse group of SNe at much larger distances, including SNe IIn, massive type Ib/Ic SNe, some of which are associated with GRBs, Ca-rich SNe, as well as SNeII-P with diverse progenitor masses, chemical abundances, and explosion energies. It is critical to make the ELTs available to the astronomy community to maximize the science returns from the LSST and JWST, which will lead to answering the key question of "Are Supernovae the Dust Producer in the Early Universe?".
Stellar Chemistry Beyond 1 Mpc with ELTs by Nathan Sandford, Dan Weisz, Yuan-Sen Ting.
With existing ground-based facilities, measuring the chemistry of resolved stars at the distance of M31 is incredibly expensive, requiring full nights of observing on 10-m telescopes. Further, it is largely limited to bulk elemental abundances ([Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe]), preventing more detailed chemical enrichment studies. Due to long integration times, read noise limitations, and crowding, measuring the chemical compositions of stars at even greater distances and higher densities from stellar spectroscopy is not currently feasible. However, the high angular resolution, sensitivity, and wavelength coverage of spectrographs on extremely large telescopes (ELTs) will soon push these limits to fainter, more distant, and more crowded systems. Here we demonstrate the potential of these upcoming spectrographs to not only measure precise chemical abundance patterns of stars in M31 and its satellites, but also in galaxies at the periphery of the Local Group and beyond, including new faint galaxy discoveries by the Rubin Observatory.
Towards robust 1% H_0 measurement with strong lensing time delays and spatially resolved stellar kinematics by Anowar Shajib.
Strong-lensing time delays provide a powerful probe to measure the Hubble constant, H_0. In the context of the recent debate between conventional measurement methods — e.g., the cosmic distance ladder and the CMB-based measurements — an independent probe like the time delays is essential to settle this debate. However, similar to the conventional methods, the presence of potential systematics needs to be mitigated in the time-delay H_0 measurement before this disagreement can be confirmed and considered as evidence of new physics. The mass-sheet degeneracy — which is inherent to the lensing data — is a source of potential systematics in the time-delay H_0 measurement. Spatially resolved stellar velocity dispersion of the lensing galaxy provides strong non-lensing constraints to break this degeneracy and thus limits the systematic impact due to the mass-sheet degeneracy. However, acquiring spatially resolved velocity dispersion with high precision has been a challenging task with the currently available facilities. I will present spatially resolved stellar velocity dispersion measurements of lens galaxies — the first of its kind — from the OSIRIS IFU on the Keck observatory, and explain what we have learnt from these measurements to help us overcome the existing challenges with the future ELTs. Finally, I will forecast that a sample of ~40 lens systems with IFU spectroscopy from ELTs will independently provide ~1% precision in H_0 — a requirement for stage IV dark energy experiments.
When every massive galaxy is a lens: strong lensing and cosmology with the ELTs by Russell J. Smith.
Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing - the distortion and splitting of background sources viewed behind massive foreground galaxies - has a wide range of applications in astrophysics and cosmology, probing the mass distribution of the lens, the magnified properties of the source, and the various distances describing their relative configuration. Strong lensing is usually considered to be a "rare" event, because the two galaxies must be very closely aligned along a single line of sight. For example, a search based on looking for blended spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey found only ~100 lenses from ~1,000,000 observed targets. However, all massive galaxies have sufficient mass density to cause multiple for a well-aligned source, and only the brightest sources are truly rare. As we observe ever more deeply, the Universe presents an increasingly rich background screen of potentially-lensed faint galaxies; eventually, every massive galaxy should be surrounded by multiply-imaged sources. IFU spectrographs provide the essential spectral and spatial contrast needed to isolate the emission lines from the distant sources, even in the presence of a bright foreground galaxy, and to identify faint counter-images unambiguously. Deep blank-field observations with MUSE already reach the necessary (unlensed) surface density of emission-line source, e.g. one per 14 square arcsec in 30 hr from the Bacon et al. HUDF observation, compared to a 10-20 square arcsec multiply-imaged area in the source-plane behind a typical massive galaxy. Allowing for lensing magnification, MUSE can reach the necessary depth in ~10 hours, but this remains prohibitive for large samples. By contrast, with ELTs, exposures of only ~0.5-1.0 hr should be enough to obtain strong lensing constraints "to order" for any massive galaxy. A key "use case" for this technique will be to observe already-known lens systems, to discover additional distant background sources, and hence establish a sample of double-source-plane lenses. The configurations of such systems (e.g. the relative size of the Einstein rings) are sensitive to ratios of distances between the lens and the two sources, and hence can be exploited as a cosmological optical bench experiment to probe the geometry of the Universe. In particular, this method can measure the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w, and thus distinguish a cosmological constant from "quintessence'' or other dynamical dark energy models. In this talk I will outline the current status of IFU lens search programmes, with an emphasis on the double-source-plane cosmology case, and discuss the capabilities of HARMONI and other upcoming ELT instruments for programmes of this kind.
Understanding the Mechanism of Jet Launching in Active Young Stars in the ELT era by Hiro Takami (ASIAA, Taiwan), Tracy Beck (STScI), Christian Schneider (Univ. Hamburg), Hans Moritz Günther (MIT), Deirdre Coffey (University College Dublin), Marc White (ANU, Australian), Jennifer Karr (ASIAA), Konstantin Grankin (CrAO), Youichi Ohyama (ASIAA), Roberto Galvan-Mádrid (UNAM), Hau-Yu Baobabu Liu (ASIAA), Nadine Manset (CFHT), Tom Ray (DIAS), Wen-Ping Chen (NCU, Taiwan), Masaaki Otsuka (Kyoto Univ.),Chun-Fan Liu (ASIAA), Fukagawa Misato (NAOJ), Tae-Soo Pyo (Subaru), Hsien Shang (ASIAA).
Understanding the mechanisms of mass accretion and jet ejection is one of the key issues of star and planet formation theories. However, observational studies are hampered by the limited angular resolutions of current telescopes, which are not sufficient to resolve structure and kinematics in the jet launching region. We are therefore pursuing an alternative approach to tackle this important issue: long-term monitoring of mass accretion and jet ejection for active young stars. Our observations since 2010 include (1) IFU+AO imaging spectroscopy of extended jets using Gemini, VLT and Keck; (2) optical high-resolution spectroscopy using CFHT-ESPaDOnS to observe gas kinematics very close to the star; and (3) optical photometry to monitor changes in mass accretion rates with high time resolution. Our results so far have shown a possible time correlation between (1) and (2)(3) for some stars, suggesting that the jet launching region is located within 0.1 AU of the star. I will discuss how extremely high angular resolutions at ELTs will improve the understanding of jet knot ejections, and therefore the understanding of what such a time correlation infers. Constraining the launching point is an important consideration in determining the disk physics and hence constraining planet formation theories.
Gamma-ray burst afterglows in the 30 m era by Nial Tanvir.
GRB afterglows provide bright continuum backlights allowing us to obtain precise redshifts and to study the chemistry and kinematics of gas (and dust) in their host galaxies and along the line of sight. Thus they shed light on cosmic chemical evolution, the history of star formation, the escape fraction of ionizing radiation, and the build up of molecules and dust. I will outline the step change in this science expected in the 30 m class telescope era, particularly at high redshift (z>~4), thanks to their hugely powerful optical/nIR spectroscopic capabilities.
Circum-galactic medium tomography on ELTs by Nicolas Tejos, Sebastián López.
Giant gravitational arcs can extend over up to a few 100 kpc on the sky at intervening redshifts, thus offering a unique opportunity to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) in absorption with IFUs. In this talk, we will report on recent VLT IFU and echelle observations of some of the brightest arcs known, designed to map the spatial and kinematic distribution of the cool CGM of intervening absorbers at z~1. We will describe how these novel observations will be possible on many more objects through ELTs, offering new and independent boundary conditions to galaxy evolution theory.
A chemo-dynamical view on the vicinity of massive black holes by Sabine Thater, Dieu D. Nguyen, Glenn van de Ven, Prashin Jethwa, Ryan Leaman.
The evolution of massive black holes (BH) and their host galaxies appears to be tightly entangled as tight scaling relations between BH mass and various galaxy properties suggest. The origin of this co-evolution is intensively investigated with observations in the nearby and far universe, simulations and complex theoretical models. However, a few key ingredients are still missing and will be addressed with high-resolution spectral near-infrared observations of extremely large telescopes. For instance 1) pushing the spatial resolution to measure masses of intermediate-mass BHs (at least an order of one to two magnitudes lower than massive BH with current observations), 2) owing to the high resolution it will be possible to determine dynamical black holes at much higher redshifts of up to 1.5 (Gültekin et al. 2019) and 3) it will be possible to examine the direkt vicinity of black holes, close to the black hole at much higher resolution. In my talk, I will take a close look at each of these three key ingredients and explain in detail how they will help us shedding light on the origin of the co-evolution between black holes and their host galaxies. I will put special emphasis to the last point which can be addressed with chemo-dynamical models that are currently developed by our team to understand galaxy assembly. While it is often difficult to infer information about massive BHs directly, galaxy evolution often leaves kinematical and chemical imprint on the stellar components in the vicinity of the black hole. I will show simulations of the HARMONI instrument, that give an indication of what we can expect by combining high-resolution ELT observations with our dynamical models.
The hosts of stellar explosions now and in the era of ELTs by Christina Thöne, Luca Izzo, Steve Schulze, José F. Agüí Fernández.
Studying the hosts and environments of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) with spatially resolved spectroscopy can give us valuable information on the likely properties of the progenitor star for these classes of stellar explosions where a direct detection seems unfeasible in the near future. Since both SLSNe and GRBs are expected to originate from the most massive stars, their environments are highly star-forming and young regions and neither of them have moved far from their birth place. In addition, they seem to require low metallicities to form their progenitor stars. In this talk I will present our current studies using MUSE and FLAMES on a sample of nearby hosts to study the resolved abundances and kinematics of GRB and SLSN hosts and - in the case of MUSE - their larger galactic environments. For most of our GRB host sample we have found strong evidences for powerful galactic winds connected to the strong star-formation going on in these galaxies. SLSN hosts are seemingly even more extreme than GRB hosts and are often found in small groups, where interactions could have an influence on a new starburst trigger giving rise to a massive progenitor star. For both samples we confirm a low metallicity environment, however, the environments are not always the most extreme regions inside their hosts. Sensitivity, resolution and wavelength issues currently restrict this kind of study to low redshift objects. I will then also present how the next generation of ELT-IFUs will contribute to develop this field to higher redshifts.
van de Sande
Resolving galaxy retirement with IFS on the ELTs: gradual wind-down, or violent relaxation? by Jesse van de Sande.
Massive slow-rotator galaxies in the present-day Universe have long been thought to be created through binary major mergers, but that paradigm is shifting. Cosmological simulations and empirical evidence now suggest that both major and minor mergers could be responsible for removing the majority of a galaxy’s angular momentum. If these predictions are true, the fraction of slow-rotating galaxies should gradually increase with time, and few slow-rotating galaxies should exist above redshift z>1.5. However, current observational facilities lack the sensitivity as well as spatial resolution to measure the integrated stellar kinematic properties of galaxies beyond z>1.5. In this talk, I will present a science case for spatially investigating massive galaxies in the early Universe, only possible using integral field spectroscopy on the upcoming extremely large telescopes. These observations will be crucial to constrain the fraction of slow rotators at 1 < z < 3, from which we can determine whether major or minor mergers are responsible for the spin down of galaxies. I will combine existing observations from SAMI, ATLAS-3D, CALIFA, and MASSIVE, with mock-observations from the EAGLE, HYDRANGEA, HORIZON-AGN, and MAGNETICUM cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, to predict how galaxies evolve from z~3 to z~0. These predictions can only be tested by spatially resolved measurements from ELTs, and will determine how galaxies chose to retire around 12 billions years ago.
Direct Spectroscopy of Exoplanets with ELTs: Technology, Analysis Techniques, and Science Cases by Ji Wang.
I will review state-of-the-art technology that enables high dispersion coronagraphy for habitable planets around M stars with ELTs, including recent development of vortex fiber nuller and dual-aperture fiber nuller. I will discuss recent development of spectral retrieval of directly-imaged exoplanets, laying out a roadmap to address the challenges in combining high and low spectral resolution, validating retrieval frameworks, and the leap from gas giant planets to rocky planets. I will highlight a few science cases for spatially-resolved spectroscopy including the simultaneous detection of reflection light and thermal emission with a suite of ELT instruments.


Posters and Pre-recorded Talks


Presenter  Title and Abstract 
Metallicity gradients corrected for spatial resolution effects — MaNGA, SAMI and CALIFA by Ayan Acharyya, Mark R. Krumholz, Christoph Federrath, Lisa J. Kewley, Sebastian F. Sanchez, Henry Poetrodjojo.
Gas-phase metallicity gradients of galaxies are a crucial ingredient for understanding the chemical evolution of galaxies. However, measurements of gradients are often affected by limited spatial resolution. The extent of this effect may be different across observations, making cross-observation comparisons unreliable. I will present a method for correcting observed metallicity gradients for the effects of spatial resolution and apply the correction method to three different IFU surveys -- MaNGA, SAMI and CALIFA. I will demonstrate that while the mean trend of metallicity gradient versus stellar mass is largely unaffected, individual galaxies can undergo significant corrections. The corrected mass--metallicity gradient trends of the different surveys qualitatively agree with each other, in that the gradients (normalised to the galaxy effective radius) steepen with stellar mass for less massive galaxies and generally display an upturn towards shallower values at stellar masses log(M_star/M_sun) > 10.5, in agreement with the literature. Our proposed method of correcting metallicity gradients for spatial resolution effects, combined with our cross-survey comparisons, enables meaningful comparisons of current and future large-scale galaxy surveys at low and high redshift.
Alfaro Cuello
Internal kinematics of outer fields in globular clusters with HST and a detailed view of a nuclear star cluster with MUSE by Mayte Alfaro-Cuello et al. (to be updated).
In the last years, photometry and spectroscopic studies have revolutionized our understanding of globular clusters. However, there are still many open questions on the formation of their multiple populations. I will present the first steps of our study of new and archival HST data to measure high-precision proper motions for stars in the outer fields of galactic globular clusters where we expect to find early-stage kinematic signatures. These will provide insights into the formation of the different populations in those clusters. We will obtain valuable photometry and astrometry information, however, to have a complete three-dimensional dynamical understanding, we need line-of-sight velocity via spectroscopic data. The future large telescope's capabilities will offer a unique opportunity to complement our current studies of dense stellar systems and take them to the next level. These studies will enhance the understanding of globular clusters not only kinematically but also providing the possibility of a detailed stellar characterization. On this last topic, I will present the work on M54, the nucleus of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. From a large MUSE data set covering out to ∼2.5 effective radii of M54, we extract the spectra for ∼6600 member stars. We recover the star formation history of this cluster, detecting at least three stellar sub-populations. These populations can be explained as the result of the combination of different nuclear star cluster formation mechanisms. This work provides a good inside of the current capabilities of integral field spectroscopy in the study of dense stellar systems.
Exploring the impact of the Star Formation in the Mass-Metallicity relation by Paola Alvarez-Hurtado, Jorge Barrera-Ballesteros, Sebastián Sánchez.
We explore the Mass-Metallicity relation (MZR) for ~1000 nearby galaxies (0.005<z<0.08) using integrated properties from the extended version of the CALIFA integral field spectroscopy data. We focused on exploring the best mathematical form that describes the observed MZR through different functional forms as well as different statistical environments. To test the goodness of the fit of the MZR, we identify the function that yields the smallest scatter in its residuals. We use this residual to explore possible secondary relations of the MZR with other observables (e.g., SFR, Gas mass, gas fraction, and morphology). Among other results, we note a significant lack of an anti-correlation between these residuals and the SFR, in contrast to previous studies. Our results suggest that the functional form and the presence of secondary relations may depend on statistical treatment.
Barrera Ballesteros
The EDGE-CALIFA survey: self-regulation of star formation at kpc scales by J. K. Barrera-Ballesteros ,S. F. Sanchez, T. Heckman, T. Wong, A. Bolatto, E. Ostriker, E. Rosolowsky , L. Carigi, S. Vogel, R. C. Levy , D. Colombo, Yufeng Luo , Yixian Cao and the EDGE-CALIFA team.
The processes that regulate star formation are essential to understand how galaxies evolve. We present the relation between star formation rate density, SFR , and hydrostatic mid-plane pressure, Ph, for 4260 star-forming regions of kpc size located in 96 galaxies included in the EDGE-CALIFA survey covering a wide range of stellar masses and morphologies. We find that these two parameters are tightly correlated, showing a smaller scatter in comparison to other star-forming relations. A power law, with a slightly sublinear index, is a good representation of this relation. Its residuals show a significant anticorrelation with both stellar age and metallicity whereas the total stellar mass may also play a secondary role in shaping the SFR–Ph relation. For actively star-forming regions, we find that the effective feedback momentum per unit stellar mass (p∗/m∗), measured from the Ph/SFR ratioincreaseswithPh.Themedianvalueofthisratioforallthesampledregionsislargerthantheexpectedmomentum just from supernovae explosions. Morphology of the galaxies, including bars, does not seem to have a significant impact in the SFR–Ph relation. Our analysis indicates that local SFR self-regulation comes mainly from momentum injection to the interstellar medium from supernovae explosions. However, other mechanisms in disc galaxies may also play a significant role in shaping the SFR at kpc scales. Our results also suggest that Ph is the main parameter that modulates star formation at kpc scales, rather than individual components of the baryonic mass.
Resolved stellar halo kinematics with Extremely Large Telescopes by Camila Beltrand (ULS); Antonela Monachesi (ULS); Eric F. Bell (U Michigan); Richard D'Souza (Vatican Observatory); Roelof de Jong (AIP); Facundo Gomez (ULS); Jeremy Bailin (UA); Adam Smercina (UW); InSung Jang (U Chicago).
Diffuse stellar halos around galaxies encode unique information about the merger history of galaxies. In addition, stellar halos may probe early chaotic phases of galaxy formation through possible in-situ stars formed in turbulent gas at early times and may also contain stars kicked out of galactic disks by interactions with satellite galaxies. Unfortunately, due to the extreme surface brightness of stellar halos in galaxies like the Milky Way ( μV > 28 mag/arcsec−2), stellar continuum spectroscopy at this limit using integrated light — a factor of 1000 below sky — is currently infeasible. The absence of dynamical information about the stellar halos of galaxies makes it difficult to extract useful information about their merger histories, disk evolution and dark matter halo masses. With the instruments of the next generation of ELTs we will be able to resolve the halo stars in nearby galaxies and measure their urgently needed spectroscopic properties. As a proof of concept, we present new results from a novel technique we are applying by coupling MUSE observations with existing HST imaging data to spectroscopically characterize the stellar halo along the major axis of an edge-on disk galaxy, NGC 4945. This will provide the first ever spectroscopic measurement of resolved stellar halo kinematics outside of the Local Group and will set up the stage for future ELT observations to come, which, thanks to its 39 m mirror, will allow us to resolve individual halo stars for nearby but more distant galaxies than currently available with MUSE and apply our technique to many more galaxies in order to have a statistically meaningful sample of galaxies with stellar halo kinematics.
Compact dwarf starburst galaxies as proxies for high-z proto-galaxies by Dominik J. Bomans, Anna Wittje, Alexander Kloos, Aisha Bachmann, Michael Stein.
In recent years the compact dwarf starbursts, like "green peas", "blueberries", and their cohorts, where shown to be promising proxies for high-z (proto-)galaxies. Subsamples show extended Lyman-alpha emission, strong indications for Lyman continuum photon leaking, galactic outflows and winds, hard radiation fields, strong magnetic fields, and very low metallicity. Since these are among the (predicted) properties of high-z (proto-)galaxies, we can do detailed studies of the physical processes at high-z conditions using these low- and intermediate redshift proxies. In the talk I will present example results based on LBT-MODS, VLT-MUSE, and VLT-UVES spatial resolved spectroscopy and extrapolate to the possibilities of spatial resolved spectroscopy with extremely large telescopes, e.g. using HARMONY at the E-ELT.
High-resolution spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres in the ELT era by Matteo Brogi.
Ground based observations with high resolution spectrographs have radically advanced the investigation of exoplanet atmospheres, greatly expanding on the results from space telescopes. The ability to recognise the unique pattern of lines of molecular bands while simultaneously tracking the planet along the orbit, allows us to confidently identify molecular species (Giacobbe, Brogi, et al., Nature, 2021). Modern retrieval methods show that solar-system precisions on abundances (~0.1 dex) are already achievable (Line, Brogi, et al., Nature, under review). The impact of the ELT on these observations will be transformational, not only in terms of the sheer difference in mirror size, but also due to the ability to combine spectral and spatial resolution, e.g. with Integral Field Units or long-slit spectroscopy. In this talk I will show how this promises not only to study a diverse sample of small planets around M-dwarfs, but also to extends these observations to the most favourable temperate, Earth-like planets.
The STAR-MELT Python Package for Emission Line Analysis by Justyn Campbell-White Aurora Sicilia-Aguilar Carlo F. Manara Soko Matsumura Min Fang Antonio Frasca Veronica Roccatagliata.
We have developed the Python package, STAR-MELT, to automatically extract, identify, and fit models to emission lines. STAR-MELT is widely compatible with data from various telescopes and instruments (including VLT, CFHT, OHP, HARPS, HST, XMM-Newton). It will be ready to work with data from the forthcoming generation of ELTs. This will allow for fast analysis of these new data, and easy comparisons to previous observations. STAR-MELT runs interactively within a Jupyter Notebook, facilitating user input if required, and can be run without editing any code. It has many potential applications to any type of astronomical source for which emission lines are found within the spectra. In addition to demonstrating the power of STAR-MELT and how useful it will be for the ELT data, we will show recent results from our multi-wavelength spectral analysis of pre-main-sequence stars. We will also show how our analysis methods will greatly benefit from the vast increase in spectral and angular resolution we will achieve with forthcoming ELTs. We have been using STAR-MELT for emission-line tomography analysis of PMS stars. Time-resolved, high-resolution spectra allow us to investigate variability in the emission line profiles and radial velocity signatures that are directly related to accretion. Local temperature and density structures in the inner disc and accretion columns can be determined from the various emission-line ratios. With both temporal and spatial information, we can then infer a tomographic map of the accretion structures, activity spots, and the innermost hot atomic gas; down to scales smaller than those achievable with direct imaging. STAR-MELT allows for direct comparisons across different instruments. Incorporating new data from ELTs will enable us to not only probe lower temperature and density regions, but also increase the temporal coverage of the data when combined with previous observations. This will serve as an excellent showcase of what the new era of ELT spectroscopy can reveal.
Exploring outflows and feedback in nearby low luminosity AGNs: the case of NGC 1052 by Sara Cazzoli et al..
Multiphase-outflows play a central role in galaxy evolution shaping the properties of galaxies and regulating their nuclear activities through feedback. Understanding outflows and their feedback effects with special emphasis in the less explored low-luminosity AGN range, in LINERs, is essential, as they are a numerous population in the local Universe and they are thought to bridge the gap between normal and active galaxies. For the prototypical LINER NGC1052, we recently obtained new IFS observations at high spatial (~40pc scale) and spectral (R~6000) resolution, with MUSE@VLT and MEGARA@GTC, respectively. These data sets will allow us to map, for the first time, the kinematics and spatial distribution of both ionised and neutral gas in NGC1052 up to ~5kpc. The preliminary results of this study, that sets the ground for exploring outflows and feedback in low luminosity AGNs, will be presented (Cazzoli et al. in prep.). The potential of HARMONI@EELT in terms of angular resolution, spectral resolution, and sensitivity for this type of studies will be also discussed.
Detecting Extraterrestrial Life on Exoplanets: A Vision Work by Thomas Y. Chen.
The ELT will enable unprecedented accuracy in detecting rocky planets in habitable zones. This is especially important in the search for extraterrestrial life, which is determined by finding properties of such planets that may be hospitable to life. By detecting direct light from exoplanets, the ELT will search for biomarkers and the formation of protoplanetary disks. In this poster, we discuss some of the key points we foresee in the search for life using ELT. In addition, we explore the use of deep learning-based computer vision (artificial intelligence) to find extraterrestrial life-signaling properties on exoplanets.
Telluric correction in ESO instrument pipelines - ELT perspectives. by Lodovico Coccato.
The presence of strong absorption lines in the atmospheric transmission spectrum affects spectroscopic observations, in particular those in the near- and mid-infrared. Therefore, there is the need to correct scientific observations for this effect, a process known as "telluric correction". In this talk, I will present the modelling technique offered by the ESO molecfit sky tool, how it is currently used and implemented into the ESO instrument pipelines. I will also discuss its future developments and strategies in view of the future ELT instruments.
Characterization of weak ionized gas outflows in star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.15 by Guilherme Couto, Thomas Hughes, Médéric Boquien, Eduardo Ibar, Sébastien Viaene, Roger Leiton and Yongquan Xue.
It is thought that supernova-driven outflows are important in the regulation of mass growth in star forming galaxies, suppressing the conversion of gas into stars. This presentation will show preliminary results of our study of the VALES (Valparaiso ALMA Line Emission Survey) sample, composed of 15 star-forming galaxies, using VLT/MUSE integral field spectroscopy data. I will present ionized gas excitation and kinematics information obtained with our data and how they relate with outflow parameters, illustrating the impact they have in the galaxies. I will also present results obtained with SED fitting using CIGALE code to multiwavelength broad and narrow band fluxes obtained from the GAMA survey. Our main goal is to characterize the outflows we observe in this sample, and retrieve crucial evolutionary parameters in order to compare and fine-tune theoretical models.
Investigating metallicity gradients in Red Sequence galaxies in the redshift range 0.2-0.7: an IFU view of galaxy clusters, looking forward to the high redshift era of Extremely Large Telescopes. by Giuseppe D'Ago, Felipe Barrientos, Constanza Muñoz.
In the recent years, spatially resolved spectroscopy has been revolutionising the way we investigate galaxy formation and evolution in the nearby Universe and at low-intermediate redshift. The collection of a significant amount of datasets and the execution of large programmes and surveys, making use of integral field unit spectrographs, urge us to develop and use fast and reliable programming tools and codes in order to exploit the unique treasure of information we will extract from coming instruments. In this frame, Extremely Large Telescopes will grant us access to high-redshift galaxies at unprecedented spatial resolution, giving us the chance to shed light on physical processes we could only speculate (so far). From a technical point of view, I will take the chance to present a highly customisable and flexible GUI, initially designed for MUSE, for performing (really) fast and reliable full-spectrum template fitting on-the-fly directly on datacubes, without the need of difficult intermediate steps and further coding. Tools like this will speed up the exploitation of the huge amount of data we will be collecting. As a scientific case, I will present here the recent results of my study on Red Sequence galaxies in several galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.2-0.7, with the main goal of investigating metallicity gradients and scaling relations in early-type galaxies. The study is performed by making use of a synergistic approach involving MUSE and HST archival datasets, and it is of crucial importance to extend such kind of investigations with the data we will collect with the upcoming facilities.
de Lorenzo-Cáceres
Astrosurgery: dissecting galaxies with integral-field spectra from ELTs by Adriana de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Jairo Méndez-Abreu, Begoña García-Lorenzo, Sebastián F. Sánchez .
Analysing the spectra of every individual component of a galaxy (disc, bar, bulge, nucleus) is the newest method for constraining the formation history of the galaxy and, in general, the evolutionary scenario of the Universe. In 2019 we presented C2D, a new algorithm to perform spectrophotometric decompositions of integral-field datacubes. We have exploited C2D applied to CALIFA data to show that star formation in galaxies happen mainly in the discs, even in the central regions where the bulge dominates the total light, and that bulges are old structures that formed earlier than discs and that have evolved mildly during cosmic time. While we continue the analysis of bulges and discs in the CALIFA survey, the prospect of integral-field spectrographs in ELTs allows us to expect to include bars and AGN-like nuclei in our decompositions. In this talk I will present the latest results of our CALIFA analysis with C2D, as well as some mock simulations of the power of C2D applied to HARMONI spectra.
The host galaxies for bright AGN at cosmic noon: de-blending their spectra by B. García-Lorenzo & A. de Lorenzo-Cáceres.
Bright AGN are the ideal candles to trace the co-evolution of galaxies and their central supermassive black holes over cosmic time. However, the AGN light can hide the underlying galaxies with contrasts reaching 10^(-3). To study distant AGN and spatially resolved their stellar hosts we require infrared observations with high angular resolution integral field spectrographs in large telescopes. However, the sizes of the resulting Point Spread Functions (PSF) of such observations will be comparable to the angular size of the host galaxies for AGN around cosmic noon (∼1 arcsec at z∼1.5). Hence, the AGN light spread all over the host galaxy. A good understanding of the point-spread function (PSF) is mandatory for careful AGN-host de-blending. The broad component of AGN emission lines can be used to reconstruct the complex PSF to support that de-blending. We use the parametrized model MAOPPY to characterized that PSF image from mock HARMONI observations of AGN+hosts at cosmic noon. Through a theoretical spectral dependency, we expand the PSF to distinct wavelengths. This 3D-PSF is used to de-blend the AGN contribution from the host galaxy. In this contribution, we explore the de-blending procedure for distinct observing conditions.
EXOPLINES: Molecular Absorption Cross-Section Database for Brown Dwarf and Giant Exoplanet Atmospheres by Ehsan Gharib-Nezhad, Aishwarya R. Iyer, Michael R. Line, Richard S. Freedman, Mark S. Marley, Natasha E. Batalha.
Stellar, substellar, and planetary atmosphere models are all highly sensitive to the input opacities. Generational differences between various state-of-the-art stellar/planetary models are primarily because of incomplete and outdated atomic/molecular line-lists. Here we present a database of pre-computed absorption cross-sections for all isotopologues of key atmospheric molecules relevant to late-type stellar, brown dwarf, and planetary atmospheres: MgH, AlH, CaH, TiH, CrH, FeH, SiO, TiO, VO, and H2O. The pressure and temperature ranges of the computed opacities are between 10^{-6}--3000 bar and 75--4000~K, and their spectral ranges are 0.25--330 micron for many cases where possible. For cases with no pressure-broadening data, we use collision theory to bridge the gap. We also probe the effect of absorption cross-sections calculated from different line lists in the context of Ultra-Hot Jupiter and M-dwarf atmospheres. Using 1-D self-consistent radiative-convective thermochemical equilibrium models, we report significant variations in the theoretical spectra and thermal profiles of substellar atmospheres. With a 2000 K representative Ultra-Hot Jupiter, we report variations of up to 320 and 80 ppm in transmission and thermal emission spectra, respectively. For a 3000 K M-dwarf, we find differences of up to 125$\%$ in the spectra. We find that the most significant differences arise due to the choice of TiO line-lists, primarily below 1$\mu$m. In sum, we present (1) a database of pre-computed molecular absorption cross-sections, and (2) quantify biases that arise when characterizing substellar/exoplanet atmospheres due to line list differences, therefore highlighting the importance of correct and complete opacities for eventual applications to high precision spectroscopy and photometry.
Resolving stellar dynamics in star clusters with HARMONI to detect IMBH? by David Gooding, Niranjan Thatte.
Very high angular resolution AO assisted spectrographs such as HARMONI in the E-ELT are a strong candidate method to confirm the first detection of the elusive intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). This poster showcases an ongoing study to assess HARMONI's capacity to detect a 104 M☉ IMBH in the star cluster R136 within the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) via line of sight velocity distribution. An IMBH of this size is expected to have a Sphere of Influence of about 1 pc in radius, or about 4 arcsec at the distance to LMC. So, with the exquisite spatial resolution afforded by ELT, we will, for the first time, be able to measure the line-of-sight velocities of individual stars well within the Sphere of Influence of a putative IMBH, and thus firmly establish whether it exists, and measure its mass accurately.
Study of variability in radiation from the Blazar source 3C454.3 by Kaustav Dipta Goswami Co-Authors: Dr. Rupjyoti Gogoi, Rukaiya Khatoon.
Blazars, a subclass of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), are the most promising sources of high energy emission in the known universe. Here, the emission originates from a relativistic jet aligned at or close to the line of sight of the observer. Extending from radio to gamma-ray energies, their broad band spectrum is predominantly non-thermal. Blazars show very high flux variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In this work, we present a study of the long-term variability in radiation from the FSRQ 3C454.3 by constructing flux distributions using 10-year simultaneous optical and gamma ray observations from SPOL at Steward Observatory and Fermi-LAT, respectively. Also, we study flux distribution using X-ray data from AstroSat. We perform investigations of the temporal and spectral variability. As for the temporal analysis, we construct light-curves with the data from all the three bands. Further, we construct the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) using X-ray data (LAXPC and SXT) and fit the SED with various models viz. power-law, log-parabola and broken power-law.
Galaxies and the Cosmic Web: The Complementary Roles of Massively Multiplexed Spectroscopy and ELTs by Jenny E Greene, Rachel Bezanson, PFS Galaxy Evolution Working Group, USELT Key Science Project Team.
In the era of the ELTs, there will still be an important role for massively multiplexed spectroscopy on more modest (e.g., 8m-class) telescopes. Many science cases, from characterizing the abundances and abundance ratios of stars in the Local Group to calibrating photometric redshifts for next-generation weak lensing measurements will rely on these spectroscopic machines. We propose to discuss the complementarity of instruments like the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on Subaru with ELTs in the context of galaxy evolution surveys. We will argue that embedding deep redshift surveys with ELTs into much larger area surveys with PFS and/or MOONS will yield very powerful wedding-cake surveys . These will allow for new insights into the flow of gas into and out of galaxies from the IGM through the CGM. If combined with IFU observations of individual galaxies with ELTs, one could extend these studies to the ISM of individual galaxies along with black hole feedback and even possibly black hole masses for the most massive black holes at cosmic noon. The statistics provided by massively multiplexed spectroscopy will allow to optimize the power of ELTs to study galaxy evolution within the cosmic web.
On the synergy between ground-based and space-borne telescopes to probe exoplanetary atmospheres by Gloria Guilluy, Alessandro Sozzetti, Aldo Bonomo, Paolo Giacobbe.
More than 4000 confirmed exoplanets and more than 1000 candidates are known today. Observations have revealed the existence of an amazing diversity in both the physical parameters of individual planets and their overall architecture, and beyond all doubt in the properties of exoplanetary atmospheres. The atmospheric chemical composition can be investigated through transmission spectroscopy, i.e. spectral time-series obtained while a planet transits its host star. Low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) transmission spectra are highly complementary because they probe different atmospheric layers and have different sensitivity to certain atomic or molecular species. In this contest, we describe important results we have recently achieved within the Italian GAPS (Global Architecture of Planetary Systems) project on the atmospheric characterization of hot giant planets at high spectral resolution using GIANO-B at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We focus on our ongoing efforts for the detection of molecular species such as water, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, methane, ammonia, acetylene, and carbon dioxide, from which atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratios and metallicities can be estimated. By using benchmark objects, we show the advantages of the synergy between current HR GIANO-B and LR HST/WFC3 transmission spectra. We further evaluate the twofold improvement that future joint analyses of HR HIRES@ELT and LR JWST observations could yield on the: (i) investigation of hot giant planets atmospheres to better determine the main parameters that govern the chemistry and physics; (ii) atmospheric characterization studies of small planets (e.g., exo-Earths), inaccessible with current instruments, with the goal of detecting signatures of life.
Measuring black hole masses over cosmic time by Kayhan Gultekin.
Most, if not all, massive galaxies host a supermassive black holes at their center. There are tight correlations between the galaxies' global properties and the masses of the black holes. It is thought that black holes may play a crucial role in galaxy evolution through feedback. However, we do not have a good understanding of the evolution of the relationship between black holes and galaxies across cosmic time. With the high angular resolution and sensitivity of HARMONI on ELT, we can get answers to essential scientific questions including: (1) Do black holes or their host galaxies grow faster? (2) What is the maximum mass that black holes can reach? The high angular resolution capability and sensitivity of ELT/HARMONI will improve our understanding of the extreme end of the black hole and galaxy mass scales. We can use orbit-based models to dynamically measure masses of the largest black holes and get galaxy properties out to redshift z~1.5. Together with the evolution of black hole-galaxy scaling relations since z~1.5, the maximum mass black hole will improve our understanding of the main channels of black hole growth.
Probing the environment of high-z quasars using the proximity effect in projected quasar pairs by Priyanka Jalan (ARIES, India), Hum Chand (CUHP, India), Raghunathan Srianand (IUCAA, India).
We have used spectra of 181 projected quasar pairs at separations of <1.5 arcmin from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 to probe the proximity regions of the foreground quasars. We study the proximity effect both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse directions, by carrying out a comparison of the Lyman-alpha absorption lines originating from the vicinity of quasars to those originating from the general inter-galactic medium at the same redshift. We found an enhancement in the transmitted flux within 4 Mpc to the quasar in the longitudinal direction. However, the trend is found to be reversed in the transverse direction. In the longitudinal direction, we derived an excess overdensity profile showing an excess up to r <= 5 Mpc after correcting for the quasars ionization, taking into account the effect of low spectral resolution. This excess overdensity profile matches with the average overdensity profile in the transverse direction without applying any correction for the effect of the quasars ionization. Among various possible interpretations, we found that the anisotropic obscuration of the quasars ionization seems to be the most probable explanation. This is also supported by the fact that all of our foreground quasars happen to be Type-I AGNs. Finally, we constrain the average quasars illumination along the transverse direction as compared to that along the longitudinal direction to be <= 27% (3 sigma confidence level).
High-resolution Transmission Spectra of Earth through Time around FGKM Host Stars: A database for Finding Signs of Life on Transiting Earth-like Planets: by Kaltenegger, L., Lin, Z., Rugheimer, S..
The search for life in the universe mainly uses modern Earth as a template. However, we know that Earth's atmospheric composition changed significantly through its geological evolution. Recent discoveries show that transiting, potentially Earthlike, exoplanets orbit a wide range of host stars, which strongly influence their atmospheric composition and remotely detectable spectra. Thus, a database for transiting terrestrial exoplanets around different host stars at different geological times is a crucial missing ingredient to support observational searches for signs of life in exoplanet atmospheres. Here, we present the first high-resolution transmission spectra database for Earthlike planets, orbiting a wide range of host stars, throughout four representative stages of Earth's history. These correspond to a prebiotic high-CO2 world—about 3.9 billion years ago in Earth's history—and three epochs through the increase in oxygen from 0.2% to modern atmospheric levels of 21%. We demonstrate that the spectral biosignature pairs O2+CH4 and O3+CH4 in the atmosphere of a transiting Earthlike planet would show a remote observer that a biosphere exists for oxygen concentrations of about 1% of modern Earth's—corresponding to about 1–2 billion years ago in Earth's history—for all host stars. The full model and high-resolution transmission spectra database, covering 0.4–20 μm, for transiting exoplanets—from young prebiotic worlds to modern Earth analogs orbiting a wide range of host stars—is available online. It is a tool to plan and optimize our observation strategy, train retrieval methods, and interpret upcoming observations with ground- and space-based telescopes. See also https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/abb9b2/meta
Searching for vertical stratification of element’s abundance in chemically peculiar stars by Viktor Khalack .
It is well known fact that some chemically peculiar (CP) stars reveal an abundance stratification with atmospheric depth for some chemical elements. This phenomenon can be explained by atomic diffusion of chemical elements within the stellar atmospheres of CP stars. Slowly rotating CP stars may possess hydrodynamically stable atmospheres where the competition between the gravitational and radiative forces leads to atomic diffusion that can be responsible for the observed abundance peculiarities. In the magnetic CP stars, the configuration of the magnetic field also comes into play because magnetism affects atomic diffusion. Project VeSElkA (Vertical Stratification of Element Abundances) is aimed to detect and study the vertical stratification of element abundances in the atmospheres of CP stars using the high-resolution and high SNR spectra acquired with ESPaDOnS (CFHT), NARVAL and Neo-NARVAL (TBL). During the spectral analysis of dozens of slowly rotating (Vsin(i)< 40 km/s) CP stars signatures of vertical abundance stratification of some chemical elements have been found in the stellar atmospheres of several stars.
Stellar Mass Assembly and Physical Properties of Redshift > 5 Galaxies by Gourav Khullar, Michael D Gladders, and the COOL-LAMPS Collaboration .
With ground-based extremely large telescopes (ELTs), high spatial resolution rest-UV studies of galaxies in and at the edge of the epoch reionization will be possible. Just like at cosmic noon, data on distant strong gravitationally-lensed galaxies will offer a wealth of photons and finer spatial resolution, and will complement population statistics from large scale surveys. Studies of strongly lensed galaxies now with 8m-class telescopes with adaptive optics, and with the soon-to-be-launched JWST, will offer a rest-frame spatial resolution and spectral SNR as good or better than expected from the ELTs working on un-lensed field sources; such studies offer a preview of the expected return from ELTs a decade hence. A first example is COOL J1241+2219, a gravitationally lensed galaxy at z=5.04 approved for JWST Cycle-1 observations. This galaxy was discovered by the COOL-LAMPS (ChicagO Optically-selected strong Lenses- Located At the Margins of Public Surveys) collaboration - a team primarily consisting of undergraduate students working to find strongly lensed systems in recent ground-based public imaging survey data. COOL J1241+2219 is 5x brighter than the prior record-holder at these redshifts, at zAB=20.5. Cycle 1 JWST/NIRSPEC IFU spectroscopy, plus NIRCam imaging observations, and upcoming Chandra, VLA, and HST imaging, will make COOLJ1241 the most comprehensively characterized object at redshift > 5, and a key reference object with longer wavelength data against which to anchor the rest-UV observations evocative of future ELT studies of unlensed sources. Moreover, space-based survey telescopes - i.e. Roman and Euclid - will discover hundreds of bright lensed galaxies in this epoch, placing ground-based ELTs perfectly to observe the rest-UV star-forming interiors of these distant lensed galaxies at scales better than 10 parsecs.
Detailed Galactic Chemical Evolution Beyond the Local Group by Evan N. Kirby.
The most detailed models of galactic chemical evolution predict how the abundance patterns of stars evolve over time (or metallicity). Testing these models requires measuring the abundances of multiple elements for an ensemble of stars in the same galaxy. Presently, these observations are possible only for galaxies in the Local Group, most of which are quiescent dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way. ELTs will open this space to star-forming galaxies beyond the Magellanic Clouds and all types of galaxies in the M31 system and beyond the Local Group. In the northern hemisphere, the galaxies in the M81 group will be accessible, and in the southern hemisphere, the Sculptor group will be a prime target. I will discuss the potential discovery space and the new things we will learn by looking beyond the Milky Way system.
REACH, an Extreme-AO assisted, single-mode fiber high-resolution NIR spectrometer on the Subaru Telescope by Takayuki Kotani, Hajime Kawahara, Nemanja Jovanovic, Julien Lozi, Sebastien Vievard, Ananya Sahoo, Olivier Guyon, Vincent Deo, Kyohoon Ahn, Masato Ishizuka, Kenta Yoneta, Ko Hosokawa, Kento Masuda, Yui Kawashima, Hiroyuki tako Ishikawa, and Motohide Tamurai.
REACH (Rigorous Exoplanetary Atmosphere Characterization with High dispersion coronography) is a new instrument for the Subaru telescope offered to the community from 2020 to realize spatially resolved, very high contrast, and high spectral resolution by combining the NIR spectrograph InfraRed Doppler (IRD) and the coronagraphic extreme adaptive optics SCExAO. REACH can cover the Y, J, H-band simultaneously at R=100,000 at Strehl ratio ~ 0.9 under good seeing condition. REACH can also do simultaneous K-band spectro-imaging with the CHARIS integral field spectrometer. We have demonstrated high-quality spectrum spectroscopy at very high contrast for some systems, including a brown dwarf and an exoplanet. REACH can also be considered a precursor and a testbed of exoplanet instruments, MODHIS and Planetary System Instrument (PSI) proposed for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We will present the current status and the latest scientific results, as well as a future upgrade plan to extend the wavelength coverage to the K-band with R=25,000 by utilizing the existing echelle spectrograph IRCS.
Optical Tomography of Chemical Elements Synthesized in Type Ia Supernovae by I. R. Seitenzahl, P. Ghavamian, J. M. Laming, and F. P. A. Vogt .
We report the discovery of optical emission from the nonradiative shocked ejecta of three young Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud: SNR 0519-69.0, SNR 0509-67.5, and N103B. Deep integral field spectroscopic observations reveal broad and spatially resolved [Fe XIV] 5303 Angstrom emission. The width of the broad line reveals, for the first time, the reverse shock speeds. For two of the remnants we can constrain the underlying supernova explosions with evolutionary models. SNR 0519-69.0 is well explained by a standard near-Chandrasekhar mass explosion, whereas for SNR 0509-67.5 our analysis suggests an energetic sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosion. With [S XII], [Fe IX], and [Fe XV] also detected, we can uniquely visualize different layers of the explosion. We refer to this new technique as "supernova remnant tomography".
Toward robust deconvolution of 3D data cubes by Alexis Lau, Benoit Neichel, Romain Fetick, Olivier Beltramo-Martin, Thierry Fusco, Fraser Clarke, Andrea Hidalgo .
Retrieval of the Point-Spread Function (PSF) remains a key challenge in adaptive optics observations. This is particularly challenging for observations of very crowded regions, or extended sources, where reference PSFs are either difficult to extract from the data, or completely absent. Inadequate knowledge of the PSF sets a hard limit to deliver precise photometric and astrometric data, or to provide any information with a higher spatial resolution. This latter case refers to deconvolution, where accurate PSF models are required to enhance low contrast features in the images. Without an accurate PSF model, it is nearly impossible to perform standard deconvolution, as the processing is highly sensitive to the input PSF. In this work, we propose a method derived from blind deconvolution which allows us to estimate a PSF directly from the science observations. The PSF estimation is simplified by means of using an analytical PSF model (so called PSFAO19), resulting in the estimation of only a few parameters. This analytical PSF can then be efficiently used to perform accurate deconvolution. In this presentation, we first show the performance of the algorithm with high resolution simulation data, and we then demonstrate the applicability with real data, using Ganymede data from MUSE as an example. We show how the PSF parameters can be estimated directly from the science observation, and we then perform deconvolution to enhance the low contrast features in the observation. As an extension of this work, we propose first to improve the PSF parameters estimation by making use of available AO telemetry, and on the other hand to make use of the 3D data cubes for hyper-spectral images like ones provided by MUSE.
A first panoramic view of an MgII emitting intragroup medium with MUSE by Floriane Leclercq, Anne Verhamme, Benoit Epinat, Charlotte Simmonds, Jorryt Matthee, Nicolas F. Bouché,Thibault Garel, Tanya Urrutia, Lutz Wisotzki, Johannes Zabl, Valentina Abril-Melgarejo, Roland Bacon, Leindert Boogaard, Jarle Brinchmann, Sebastiano Cantalupo, Thierry Contini, Josephine Kerutt, Haruka Kusakabe, Michael Maseda, Léo Michel-Dansac, Sowgat Muzahid, Themiya Nanayakkara, and Joop Schaye.
Using the exquisite MUSE eXtremely Deep Field data, we report the discovery of an MgII emission nebula with an area above a 2σ significance level of 1000 proper kpc^2, providing the first panoramic view of the spatial distribution of magnesium in the intragroup medium of a low mass group of five star-forming galaxies at z=1.31. The galaxy group members are separated by less than 50 physical kpc in projection and ≈120 km/s in velocity space. The most massive galaxy has a stellar mass of 10^9.35 Msol and shows an MgII P-Cygni line profile indicating the presence of an outflow, which is consistent with the spatially resolved spectral analysis showing ≈+120 km/s shift of the MgII emission lines with respect to the systemic redshift. The other galaxies are less massive and only show MgII in emission. The detected MgII nebula has a maximal projected extent of ≈70 kpc including a low surface brightness (≈2×10^−19 erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2) gaseous bridge between two subgroups of galaxies. The presence of absorption features in the spectrum of a background galaxy located at an impact parameter of 19 kpc from the closest galaxy of the group indicates the presence of gas enriched in magnesium even beyond the detected nebula seen in emission, suggesting that we are observing the tip of a larger intragroup medium. The observed MgII velocity gradient suggests an overall rotation of the structure along the major axis of the most massive galaxy. Our MUSE data also reveal extended FeII* emission in the vicinity of the most massive galaxy, aligned with its minor axis and pointing towards a neighboring galaxy. Extended [OII] emission is found around the galaxy group members and at the location of the MgII bridge. Our results suggest that both tidal stripping effects from galaxy interactions and outflows are enriching the intragroup medium of this system. With the arrival of HARMONI, such analysis of the intragroup and circum-galactic media of high-redshift star-forming galaxies will revolutionize our understanding of gas exchanges in and around the galaxies. By probing the spectral properties of such media at small scales through spatially revolved analysis, HARMONI will shed light on the mechanisms enriching the surroundings of galaxies and therefore improve our understanding of galaxy evolution.
Instrumentation for Spatially Resolved Solar Spectroscopy by Inês Leite; Alexandre Cabral.
The study of the Sun is an area still open in several topics of astrophysics. As an example, in the detection and characterization of exo-planets with the new generations of ground- and space-based instrumentation is somehow limited by the astrophysical noise produced in the atmospheres of the host stars and that distorts the observed spectra. In order to correct for these effects at the necessary levels of accuracy a better knowledge of the hosting stars is mandatory. This PhD thesis will be focused on the development of a solar telescope that will allow the detail study of the Sun (using it a proxy to understand the sources of noise that affect the observations of other stars). The work will have its core at the level of the instrumentation concept development and optical system engineering, covering from the solar telescope, the light injection and guiding subsystem to the interfaces with possible spectrographs (namely ESPRESSO).
Exochronology and the Cosmic Coincidence by Laura A Lewis.
The Cosmic Coincidence of the energy densities of matter and the cosmological constant being of the same order of magnitude within the time of the Earth’s formation leads to the question of whether the emergence of terrestrial planets in the universe is linked to these density parities. The relationship between the universal densities and the creation of planets was investigated in (Lineweaver, 2001) where, it was found with a probability of approximately 68%, that terrestrial planets in the universe would form with matter density of Ωm0 ~ 0.3 and vacuum density of ΩΛ0 ~ 0. 7. In the current model of planetary formation, planets require a critical metallicity of 10 % solar values. (Johnson & Li, 2012). This could be used as a guide to ascertain at what point in the history of the universe stars contained enough metals to form planetary bodies. Although this metallicity requirement is somewhat debated and Population III stars may have formed planets in the early universe with [Fe/H]∼−1.95, ∼13 Gyr) (Shchekinov et al., 2013). Using stellar population and galaxy formation models, the mean age of terrestrial planets in the local universe is 7±1 Gyr for FGK stars and 8 ± 1 Gyr for M dwarves. (Zackrisson et al., 2016) In this research, the relationship between the evolving density differences of the universe and the initial formation of rocky planets is investigated using the substantial amount of new data we now have for the ages and distribution of the exoplanet population and improved measurements of the cosmological acceleration. Johnson, J. L., & Li, H. (2012). The first planets: The critical metallicity for planet formation. Astrophysical Journal, 751(2). https://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/81 Lineweaver, C. H. (2001). An Estimate of the Age Distribution of Terrestrial Planets in the Universe: Quantifying Metallicity as a Selection Effect. Icarus, 151(2), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.1006/icar.2001.6607 Shchekinov, Y. A., Safonova, M., & Murthy, J. (2013). Planets in the early Universe. Astrophysics and Space Science, 346(1), 31–40. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10509-013-1435-0 Zackrisson, E., Calissendorff, P., González, J., Benson, A., Johansen, A., & Janson, M. (2016). Terrestrial Planets Across Space and Time. The Astrophysical Journal, 833(2), 214. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/833/2/214
Differentiating modern and prebiotic Earth scenarios for TRAPPIST-1e: high-resolution transmission spectra and predictions for JWST by Zifan Lin, Ryan J. MacDonald, Lisa Kaltenegger, David J. Wilson.
The TRAPPIST-1 system is a priority target for terrestrial exoplanet characterization. TRAPPIST-1e, residing in the habitable zone, will be observed during the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) GTO Program. Here, we assess the prospects of differentiating between prebiotic and modern Earth scenarios for TRAPPIST-1e via transmission spectroscopy. Using updated TRAPPIST-1 stellar models from the Mega-MUSCLES survey, we compute self-consistent model atmospheres for a 1 bar prebiotic Earth scenario and two modern Earth scenarios (1 and 0.5 bar eroded atmosphere). Our modern and prebiotic highresolution transmission spectra (0.4–20 μm at R ∼100 000) are made available online. We conduct a Bayesian atmospheric retrieval analysis to ascertain the molecular detectability, abundance measurements, and temperature constraints achievable for both scenarios with JWST. We demonstrate that JWST can differentiate between our prebiotic and modern Earth scenarios within 20 NIRSpec Prism transits via CH4 abundance measurements. However, JWST will struggle to detect O3 for our modern Earth scenario to > 2 σ confidence within the nominal mission lifetime (∼ 80 transits over 5 yr). The agnostic combination of N2O and/or O3 offers better prospects, with a predicted detection significance of 2.7 σ with 100 Prism transits. We show that combining MIRI LRS transits with Prism data provides little improvement to atmospheric constraints compared to observing additional Prism transits. Though biosignatures will be challenging to detect for TRAPPIST-1e with JWST, the abundances for several important molecules – CO2, CH4, and H2O – can be measured to a precision of approximately 0.7 dex (a factor of 5) within a 20 Prism transit JWST program.
Global properties of CIII]λ1908 emitting star-forming galaxies at z~2-4 in VANDELS survey by Mario Llerena, Ricardo Amorin & the VANDELS team .
The first 2-3 Gyr of cosmic history are key to understand reionization and how most present-day galaxies form and assemble. Normal galaxies at these early epochs show more extreme stellar and nebular properties than their lower redshift counterparts, but the connection between these properties and the physical mechanisms facilitating galaxy growth and the escape of ionizing photons used for sustaining cosmic reionization still need to be established. In this scenario, CIII]λ1908 emitters have been proved to be relevant to find out these connections because of their properties similar to primeval galaxies. In this poster, we present the physical properties and chemical abundances of a large sample of CIII] emitters at z=2-4 selected from the unprecedentedly deep VIMOS/VANDELS spectroscopic survey. In particular, we discuss UV emission-line diagnostics and key scaling relations involving stellar metallicities, C/O abundances, and other global properties.
Simulating HARMONI observations of high-redshift clumpy galaxies by Tânia Machado, Anita Zanella, Christopher Harrison, Joël Vernet .
The near-infrared integral field spectrograph HARMONI will be a first generation instrument of the Extremely Large Telescope. We test how it will improve the estimate of the physical properties of star-forming regions (clumps) found in high-redshift (z~2–3) galaxies. We simulate HARMONI's datacubes obtained in a typical two hour observation, extract Ha emission line maps and analise what parameters influence the measurement of the clumps' and galaxy disk's properties. Galfit sotfware is being used to create input cubes and perform a two-dimensional fit to the HARMONI's simulation (HSIM) output cubes, in order to estimate luminosities, sizes and positions of the clumps. We aim to fully describe how the adaptive optics perfomance influences the accuracy of the results. I will present our results from this research project in a talk.
HIRES, the high resolution spectrograph for the ELT by Alessandro Marconi on behalf of the HIRES Consortium.
HIRES is an optical-infrared High Resolution Spectrograph for the ELT which is expected to start construction phase in early 2022 to arrive at the telescope in early 2030. The HIRES consortium includes more than 30 institutes from 13 countries. I will present an overview of the project, describing the science case and the baseline design. The top science cases of ELT-HIRES will be the detection of life signatures from exoplanet atmospheres, tests on the stability of Nature’s fundamental couplings, the direct detection of the cosmic acceleration. However, the science requirements of these science cases enable many other ground-breaking science cases. The baseline design, which allows to fulfil the top science cases, consists of a modular fibre-fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph providing a simultaneous range of 0.4-1.8 µm (goal 0.35-2.4 µm) at a resolution of 100,000 and with several observing modes. HIRES will be provide both in seeing- and diffraction-limited modes, the latter being characterised by a unique IFU, capable of a simultaneous wavelength coverage of 1-1.8 µm and FOVs of 0.5"x0.5" or 0.04"x0.04"
Transformative Science with an WFOS IFU by Christopher Martin.
A slicer-based WFOS Integral Field Unit will deliver extraordinary science capability at a modest incremental cost for a wide range of topics in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics. We highlight some of these using early KCWI results (as well as MUSE) as a guide. In particular, WFOS-IFU will revolutionize our understanding of the physical conditions in the Circum-Galactic Medium (CGM) and the Intergalactic Medium. It will probe the fundamental role of gas, metal, and energy flows into and out of young galaxies that may control their formation and evolution. It will support mapping galaxy/CGM/IGM correlations in order to probe galaxy, halo, IGM, and cosmic co-evolution.
Recent surveys of the low-surface brightness local universe have yielded so far an unprecedented sample of bright stellar streams around nearby spiral galaxies, including the discovery of observational analogues to the canonical morphologies found in cosmological simulations of stellar halos. This offers an unique opportunity to study in detail the apparently still dramatic last stages of galaxy assembly in the local volume. Dynamical analysis of these tidal structures can provide unique views of the dark matter halos (and asymmetries) of their host galaxies. These discoveries have also enabled first qualitative tests with predictions from N-body models of galaxy disruption/accretion based only on the fitting of the sky-projected features available from deep imaging. However, radial velocities of individual tidal debris stars are required to break the degeneracy of modelling streams with imaging data alone. In fact, the properties of the host galaxy that we can constrain depend on the morphology of the streams. Assuming some kinematics is available, radial streams (`umbrellas´) are useful to probe the dark matter density profile and slope on very extended radial intervals, while "great circle" streams can probe the shape of the dark matter halo. In this talk, I will discuss our plans and scientific motivation for obtaining radial velocities of individual tidal debris stars to probe the dark matter halos of at least 10 nearby massive galaxies beyond the Local Group with the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and the future HARMONI and MOSAIC instruments early in the next decade.
MAVIS: A Diffraction-Limited Visible Imager and Spectrograph Facility for the VLT by Richard McDermid, on behalf of the MAVIS Consortium.
I will present an overview of the capabilities and diverse science cases for the Multi-conjugate Adaptive-optics Visible Imager-Spectrograph (MAVIS), being built for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). MAVIS is a general-purpose instrument for exploiting the highest possible angular resolution of any single optical telescope available in the next decade, either on Earth or in space, and with sensitivity comparable to (or better than) larger aperture facilities. MAVIS uses two deformable mirrors in addition to the deformable secondary mirror of the AOF, providing a mean V-band Strehl ratio of >10% (goal >15%) across a relatively large (30”) science field. This equates to a resolution of <20mas at 550nm - comparable to the K-band diffraction limit of the next generation of extremely large telescopes - delivered to a Nyquist-sampled imager (30”x30” field), and a versatile integral field spectrograph with multiple spatial and spectral modes spanning 370-1000nm. Moreover, MAVIS will have unprecedented sky coverage for a high-order AO system, accessing at least 50% of the sky at the Galactic Pole. This makes MAVIS a truly general purpose facility instrument, and a powerful optical counterpart to future IR-optimised facilities like JWST and the ELT, with multiple synergistic science cases identified.
From MUSE to HARMONI: Unveiling the dynamical evolution of galaxies with new constrained forward modelling methods by W. Mercier , B. Epinat, T. Contini, V. Abril-Melgarejo, L. Boogaard, et al..
Using as an illustration our current analysis on a sample of roughly 600 resolved galaxies in structures and in their foreground and background from the latest MUSE-GTO observations of 17 different fields in the COSMOS area from the MAGIC survey, I will present the methodology we developed to study the impact of the environment on the morphological and kinematical properties of intermediate redshift galaxies (0.25 . z . 1.5) with the use of combined HST and MUSE data. I will explain the multi-component decomposition we perform on HST images, and how we can extract the ionised gas kinematics from the MUSE cubes using the [OII] doublet as a kinematical tracer. I will also show how we can take into account prior information from the morphological decomposition to perform a mass modelling in order to extract the galaxies main kinematical parameters such as their circular velocity and baryon fraction. Because we are analysing galaxies from the same MUSE and HST observations, with similar methodology and tools, we can perform a robust comparison of the dynamical properties of galaxies found in various types of environments. Specifically, we are able to probe into details how the environment may affect the evolution of galaxies just after the peak of star formation. After briefly showing our past (Abril-Melgarejo et al. 2021) and current results on various scaling relations such as the size-mass and Tully-Fisher relations and how these scale with structures properties, I will discuss current developments being made to improve even further our modelling and analysis and how these will greatly benefit from future instruments on next generation telescopes such as ELT-HARMONI and ELT-MICADO.
From MUSE to HARMONI: Unveiling the dynamical evolution of galaxies with new constrained forward modeling methods by Wilfried Mercier, B. Epinat, T. Contini, V. Abril-Melgarejo, L. Boogaard, et al..
Using as an illustration our current analysis on a sample of roughly 600 resolved galaxies in structures and in their foreground and background from the latest MUSE-GTO observations of 17 different fields in the COSMOS area from the MAGIC survey, I will present the methodology we developed to study the impact of the environment on the morphological and kinematical properties of intermediate redshift galaxies (0.25 . z . 1.5) with the use of combined HST and MUSE data. I will explain the multi-component decomposition we perform on HST images, and how we can extract the ionised gas kinematics from the MUSE cubes using the [OII] doublet as a kinematical tracer. I will also show how we can take into account prior information from the morphological decomposition to perform a mass modelling in order to extract the galaxies main kinematical parameters such as their circular velocity and baryon fraction. Because we are analysing galaxies from the same MUSE and HST observations, with similar methodology and tools, we can perform a robust comparison of the dynamical properties of galaxies found in various types of environments. Specifically, we are able to probe into details how the environment may affect the evolution of galaxies just after the peak of star formation. After briefly showing our past (Abril-Melgarejo et al. 2021) and current results on various scaling relations such as the size-mass and Tully-Fisher relations and how these scale with structures properties, I will discuss current developments being made to improve even further our modelling and analysis and how these will greatly benefit from future instruments on next generation telescopes such as ELT-HARMONI and ELT-MICADO.
Stars Lensed by the Supermassive Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way: Predictions for ELT by Michał Michałowski & Przemek Mróz.
Gravitational lensing is an important prediction of general relativity, providing both its test and a tool to detect faint but amplified sources and to measure masses of lenses. For some applications, (e.g., testing the theory), a point source lensed by a point-like lens would be more advantageous. However, until now only one gravitationally lensed star has been resolved. Future telescopes will resolve very small lensing signatures for stars orbiting the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the center of the Milky Way. The lensing signatures, however, should be easier to detect for background stars. I will show the prediction that the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) will resolve the lensed images of around 100 stars in the background of the SMBH. I will also describe what observational characteristics are needed to achieve this. Finally, I will discuss other observational signatures of lensed stars, which could be searched for with ELT.
Appearance versus disappearance of broad absorption line troughs in quasars by Sapna Mishra.
We present a new set of 84 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars (1.7 < z em < 4.4) exhibiting an appearance of C IV BAL troughs over 0.3–4.8 rest-frame years by comparing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release (SDSSDR)-7, SDSSDR-12, and SDSSDR-14 quasar catalogues. We contrast the nature of BAL variability in this appearing BAL quasar sample with a disappearing BAL quasar sample studied in the literature by comparing the quasar’s intrinsic, BAL trough, and continuum parameters between the two samples. We find that appearing BAL quasars have relatively higher redshift and smaller probed time-scales as compared to the disappearing BAL quasars. To mitigate the effect of any redshift bias, we created control samples of appearing and disappearing BAL quasars that have similar redshift distribution. We find that the appearing BAL quasars are relatively brighter and have shallower and wider BAL troughs compared to the disappearing BAL sample. The distribution of quasar continuum variability parameters between the two samples is clearly separated, with the appearance of the BAL troughs being accompanied by the dimming of the continuum and vice versa. Spectral index variations in the two samples also point to the anticorrelation between the BAL trough and continuum variations consistent with the ‘bluer when brighter’ trend in quasars. We show that the intrinsic dust model is less likely to be a favourable scenario in explaining BAL appearance/disappearance. Our analysis suggests that the extreme variations of BAL troughs like BAL appearance/disappearance are mainly driven by changes in the ionization conditions of the absorbing gas.
Long slit spectroscopy of interacting galaxies: the case of SDSSJ134420.86+663717.8 by Persis Misquitta, Andreas Eckart, Micah Bowles, Madeleine Yttergren.
Interactions are believed to play a role in the evolution of galaxies. The process of gravitational interaction causes the dust and the gas of the individual galaxies to collide and collapse, leading to bursts of star formation, and can even start accretion on to the central supermassive black hole (SMBH), giving rise to the energetic phenomenon called the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). While the attendant processes can and do obscure emission at visible wavelengths from the centre, it is nevertheless advantageous to study these galaxies using optical long slit spectroscopy. At high spectral resolution, such studies can yield information about the nature of the central SMBHs, black hole masses, and velocity dispersions. We used the Multi Object Double Spectrograph (MODS) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) to observe SDSSJ134420.86+663717.8, a pair of interacting galaxies at a redshift of 0.128. We analysed the spectra from the nuclear regions and plotted diagnostic diagrams, calculated masses of the central SMBHs, and plotted rotation curves. Further, we used a simple N-body simulation to model the source, to understand the conditions of the progenitor galaxies. We find that for an almost orthogonal approach, the result of the simulation emulates well the optical and kinematical features of the source.
WFOS IFU: a possible upgrade of Wide Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS) on TMT by Shinobu Ozaki, Fumihiro Uraguchi, Risa Shimizu, Toshihiro Tsuzuki, Satoshi Miyzaki, Yuichi Matsuda, Hidenobu Yajima, Hideki Umehata, Satoshi Kikuta, Ikki Mitsuhashi.
Wide Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS) is one of the first light instruments on TMT. It is developed by international collaboration including US, China, India and Japan. WFOS offers imaging and multi-slit spectroscopy functions, but unfortunately does not have an integral field spectroscopy function. Therefore, we are planning to install IFU as the upgrade. In the current concept, the maximum field of view is 20" x 27" with the 1.5" slice width. This is the largest field among integral field spectrographs on ELTs. Together with the large aperture of TMT, WFOS IFU will provide us new observational evidences on connections between galaxy evolution and large-scale structures such as a cosmic web and cold streams. In our presentaion, we will present the current status of the conceptual design study on the IFU.
An observational clue to the formation of local analogs of high-redshift galaxies by Abhishek Paswan, Kanak Saha, Suraj Dhiwar.
Compact star-forming galaxies such as Blueberry/Green-Pea galaxies in the local Universe have been understood as the best analog of high-redshift galaxies. However, even with their proximity to us, we know little about their formation scenario. Here we report our observations of Blueberry galaxies situated at the outskirt of Low Surface Brightness Galaxies (LSBs). Our analysis supports that our Blueberry sources are closely associated with LSBs and most likely formed via interactions/merger of galaxies or gas accretion events that occurred very recently. Implications of our study will be discussed.
Resolving AGN outflows at the cosmic noon with ELT/HARMONI by Michele Perna, Santiago Arribas .
AGN are thought to regulate the growth of their host galaxies through feedback mechanisms, playing a key role especially at z~1-3, the peak of galaxy assembly. At these redshifts, studies have focused on the detection and characterisation of ionised outflowing gas ([OIII]5007, Ha) on kpc scales within the host. However, most of the current AGN surveys at z> 1 cannot spatially resolve these outflows at sub-kpc scales; consequently, they cannot investigate the complex interactions between outflows and star formation activity. Moreover, in these studies, several assumptions have to be made (e.g. on the unconstrained/unresolved outflow morphology) to infer the outflow effects (e.g. mass loading factor, outflow kinetic power). To really understand how feedback works and measure relevant quantities such as the outflow energetics at the cosmic noon it is necessary to spatially resolve the outflows, constraining their geometry and interaction with the surrounding ISM on scales of about a few 100s pc. In this talk, we present a study of the ELT/HARMONI capabilities in resolving outflow structures at z>1. We use 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane (based on Bae & Woo 2016) simulating the observed Ha kinematics in obscured AGN. In particular, a set of input parameters defining the outflow (e.g. cone inclination w.r.t. the host disk, opening angle, kinematic model) and the host galaxy properties (e.g. inclination, dynamical mass, obscuration) is used to simulate mock galaxies to be managed by the simulation pipeline HSIM.
Understanding the formation and evolution of galaxy components using SYNthetic specTRA from simulations by E. Portaluri, V. P. Debattista, A. Pizzella, E. M. Corsini, E. Dalla Bontà, L. Morelli, M. Rubino.
Integral field spectroscopy of nearby galaxies can probe the physics and stellar components, providing information on the current stellar populations and dynamical state of galaxies. However, to interpret the results and understand the star formation history and/or the galaxy evolution, we need to compare real data with simulations. Given these considerations, we build up a code, namely SYNTRA (SYNthetic specTRA), which takes as an input high-resolution N-body + smooth particle hydrodynamical simulations and generates the corresponding IF spectra, taking a picture of a particular age of the evolution, or state of the system, or even considering certain observing conditions - physical (i.e., axial ratio, PA,...) or technical (instrumental resolution, plate scale…). We applied it to understand the physical processes that drive the formation and evolution of counter-rotating components and the presence of drops in the nuclear kinematics of galaxies. Therefore, this method can be used to test our ability of recovering the physical characteristics for a variety of applications and, moreover, it can be easily adopted to predict the scientific improvement that can be obtained with future IF instruments, according to their technical specifications, thus helping in the definition of given science cases.
Portilla Revelo
Modelling the dust component of the PDS 70 system. by Bayron Portilla-Revelo.
Recently, two planetary-mass companions were detected around the T Tauri star PDS 70. These objects are thought to be two giant planets going through the last stages of the formation process. We present a radiative transfer model aimed to reproduce the Near Infrared and Submillimeter observations. We used this model to constrain the physical conditions in the vicinity of one of those planets.
Dust grains in high-redshift damped Lyman-alpha absorbers by Katherine Rawlins (St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, India), Gargi Shaw (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, India), Raghunathan Srianand (Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Pune, India).
Intervening clouds of gas along quasar sightlines are probed through their absorption lines in the quasar spectrum. Damped Lyman-alpha absorbers (DLAs) are clouds with very high content of neutral gas, similar to that in the Milky Way. Studies of the structure and dynamics of DLAs will improve our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. Numerical simulations are performed for four high-redshift H2-bearing DLAs using the spectral synthesis code CLOUDY (http://www.nublado.org/). This includes a unique DLA with multi-component H2 absorption, for which models of each molecular component are constructed individually. Constrained using the observed column densities of various atomic and molecular species, these models offer insight into the physical environment of the absorbers. All four DLAs are found to harbour dust grains smaller in size than those seen in the Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). These dust grains are half the sizes of ISM grains, but follow the MRN power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl & Nordsieck 1977). Some alternate scenarios to this are explored, and suggest the possibility of the grains being ISM-sized and porous instead. The numerical models also enable greater comprehension of other physical properties such as the radiation field, density, temperature and pressure conditions, cosmic ray ionization rate, and elemental abundances.
S. Ilha
Selection and characterization of Red Geysers: What is the source of gas ionization? by Gabriele S. Ilha, Rogemar A. Riffel, Sandro B. Rembold.
Red Geysers are quiescent galaxies that show a bi-polar outflow, but the mechanism that produces this outflow is still unclear. For the prototype of this class of galaxies (Akira galaxy), the bipolar outflow probably is originated in a low-luminosity AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei). We have used data cubes from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) project from SDSS-IV to select and analyze a sample of Red Geysers. The following selection criteria were used to select the Red Geyser sample: rest frame color NUV−r>5, star formation rate with log(SFR[M/yr]<−2), bi-symmetric pattern in Hα-EW maps aligned with the gas kinematic axis and misaligned with the stellar kinematic axis, velocity fields of Hα reaching values of ±300 km/s and being at least 1.5 times as high as the values of the stellar velocity fields. We measured the orientation of the kinematic axis of stellar and gas velocity fields and added the following criteria: difference in the orientation of the kinematic axis of stellar and gas velocity fields of 10º<∆PA<170º. The selected sample is composed of 92 galaxies and only 11% of them have gas ionization caused by an AGN in the nuclear region. We selected 9 of the 92 Red Geysers to observe with the GMOS (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs) instrument from the Gemini telescope. Preliminary results for the galaxy MaNGA 1-385124 using data from MaNGA indicate that the source of gas ionization can not be an AGN, however using GMOS data we have an AGN.
The Low-z Lyman Continuum Survey: Unveiling the ISM properties of Lyman Continuum emitters by Alberto Saldana-Lopez (UniGE, CHE) Daniel Schaerer (UniGE, CHE) John Chisholm (UT, US) LzLCS Team.
The contribution of Star-Forming (SF) galaxies to Reionization is still unknown. Using 66 ultraviolet (UV) spectra from the recent Low-Redshift Lyman Continuum Survey (LzLCS) and 11 archival LyC emitters (Izotov et al.), we form a statistical sample of SF galaxies at z ∼ 0.2 − 0.4 to study the role of the cool ISM gas in the leakage of ionizing radiation. We first constrain the massive star content of the sample in terms of stellar ages, metallicities, and UV attenuation, together with determinations of the photon escape (fesc) for every galaxy. We then measure the equivalent widths and residual fluxes of multiple HI and low-ionization state (LIS) lines. The equivalent widths and residual fluxes of both the HI and LIS lines strongly correlate with fesc: strong LyC leakers show weak absorption lines, low UV attenuation, and large Lyman Alpha equivalent widths. The HI and LIS covering fractions are correlated, indicating that the neutral gas is spatially traced by the low-ionized transitions. The observed non-uniform gas coverage demonstrates that LyC photons escape through low-column density channels in the ISM. Finally, we show that simultaneous UV absorption line and dust attenuation measurements can accurately predict the escape fraction of galaxies, and we apply our method to available measurements of UV LIS lines in z ∼ 4−6 galaxies.
Internal mass distributions and orbital structures of SAMI passive galaxies by Giulia Santucci.
Galaxy mergers play an important role in how galaxies evolve over time, however extragalactic astronomers do not yet completely understand the process by which those mergers happen. The merger history of a galaxy is thought to be one of the major factors that determines the internal kinematic structures of galaxies, with galaxies having undergone more mergers predicted to show different properties. Therefore, we expect that the internal kinematic structures of passive galaxies could show different characteristics depending on their merging history. We apply orbit superposition Schwarzschild models to passive galaxies in the SAMI Galaxy Survey, in order to reconstruct their internal kinematic structure and mass distribution. We find that the changes of internal structures within 1Re are generally driven by the stellar mass of the individual galaxies. New ELT facilities will enable us to further explore the internal structures of local galaxies and to better understand galaxy evolution by comparing the internal properties of galaxies at different redshifts.
Review about cosmology by Lakhdar Sek Mokhtar Falek Mustafa Moumni.
The first is "Inflationary Cosmology," the prevailing paradigm for interpreting the universe's early evolution. I will summarize inflationary cosmology's triumphs, but I will also focus on some conceptual issues that inflationary cosmology is confronting, challenges that stimulate the search for potential alternatives. I will present two alternative scenarios, the "Matter Bounce" model and "String Gas Cosmology," and demonstrate how those models generate cosmic fluctuations that potentially explain current data.
Effects of Thermal Emission on Chandrasekharʼs Semi-infinite Diffuse Reflection Problem by Soumya Sengupta.
The analytical results of Chandrasekharʼs semi-infinite diffuse reflection problem is crucial in the context of the stellar or planetary atmosphere. However, the atmospheric emission effect was not taken into account in this model, and the solutions are applicable only for a diffusely scattering atmosphere in the absence of emission. We extend the model of the semi-infinite diffuse reflection problem by including the effects of thermal emission B(T), and present how this affects Chandrasekharʼs analytical end results. Hence, we aim to generalize Chandrasekhar’s model to provide a complete picture of this problem. We use Invariance Principle Method to find the radiative transfer equation accurate for diffuse reflection in the presence of B(T). Then we derive the modified scattering function S(μ, f; μ_0, f_0 ) for different kinds of phase functions. We find that the scattering function S(μ, f; μ_0 , f_0 ) as well as the diffusely reflected specific intensity I(0, μ; μ_0 ) for different phase functions are modified due to the emission B(T) from layer τ = 0. In both cases, B(T) is added to the results of the only scattering case derived by Chandrasekhar, with some multiplicative factors. Thus the diffusely reflected spectra will be enriched and carry the temperature information of the τ = 0 layer. As the effects are additive in nature, hence our model reduces to the sub-case of Chandrasekharʼs scattering model in the case of B(T) = 0. We conclude that our generalized model provides more accurate results due to the inclusion of the thermal emission effect in Chandrasekharʼs semi-infinite atmosphere problem.
Dark Matter core in star-forming galaxies expands (i.e. evolves) from z~1 to z=0. by Gauri Sharma .
I will present an observational study of progenitors of star-forming disc galaxies at z~1 with a currently available large sample (KROSS data). This study confirms that [1] the RCs of z~1 star-forming disc-like galaxies are similar to local disc galaxies, [2] the dark matter fraction in these galaxies is above 50%. Both evidences are unique and in tension with several previous studies. In short, the main difference between my studies and others lies in the accurate 3D modelling of the kinematics (in 3D space) and the consideration of pressure support without anticipating velocity dispersion, which I would like to highlight to the community. Furthermore, I will show that the progenitors of disc galaxies at z~1 have a DENSER and SMALLER dark matter core (DM). This evidence requires a detailed understanding of the cosmological evolution of the distribution of dark matter in galaxies, most likely related to its nature. At the end of the talk, I will discuss the need for the giant ground and space-based telescopes to continue this crucial study.
The Giant Magellan Integral Field Spectrograph, GMTIFS by Rob Sharp.
GMTIFS is a first-generation instrument for the GMT and will deliver infrared imaging and integral field spectroscopy for the Natural Guide Star and laser Tomography AO modes. GMTIFS is mid-way through the preliminary design process and rapidly evolving technologies underpin exciting science opportunities. I will provide a brief overview of the instrument concept and highlight the key science cases GMTIFS will address.
A systematic search for (sub)-kpc dual AGN with varstrometry by Yue Shen, Xin Liu, Yu-Ching Chen, Hsiang-Chih Hwang, Nadia Zakamska.
Identifying the population of post-merger-scale (<~ a few kpc) dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a critical pathway to understanding their dynamical evolution and successive mergers. Discovering these dual SMBHs at high redshift (e.g., z>1) is of particular significance, since mergers are more frequent at high redshift and these systems are the progenitor population of SMBH coalescence occurring at lower redshift. However, given stringent resolution requirements, this redshift-separation regime is poorly explored, with few confirmed <10 kpc dual SMBHs at z>1. Using a novel astrometry-based technique (dubbed varstrometry for "variability induced centroid jitter"), we are conducting a systematic search for sub-arcsec dual AGN at high redshift. Spatially resolved spectroscopy provides one of the most effective means to confirm the dual AGN nature, and the upcoming extremely large telescopes will be able to compile an unprecedented large sample of confirmed sub-kpc dual AGN at high redshift.
Anomalies in Quasar Redshift reconceptulized under Blueshift by Justin Singh Shirin Haque.
This research investigates the anomalies associated with redshifts in Quasar candidates and the viability of a blueshift interpretation. The sample was taken from the Million Quasars Catalog (MILLIQUAS), specifically the unidentified class with a redshift greater than 1. This sample was further constrained to those with spectra available, which gave 208 candidates in total. 50% of the sample has been analyzed thus far, with the reported redshifts and a blueshift interpretation. A subset of the 46% of the sample was further analyzed using the best redshift interpretation of the emission lines, which differed from the reported redshifts, in comparison with the blueshift interpretation. The number of unidentified lines under each interpretation was compared and was found to be statistically different, with a larger number of unidentified lines under the redshift interpretation. The average spread was also compared and found to be statistically different with an average spread of 0.0417 for redshift and 0.01742 for blueshift. 87.5% of the analyzed sample provided an overall better interpretation under the blueshift hypothesis. This support the idea of considering blueshift as a possible occurrence in conjunction with redshift as it can be an outcome of the ejection mechanism of multi-body interaction systems that are frequently observed.
Characterization of the atmospheres of the terrestrial exoplanets. by Manika Singla, Sujan Sengupta.
Although more than 4000 exoplanets have been detected to date, we know significantly less about their atmospheres in detail. To understand the ambient environment of terrestrial exoplanets, we model the planetary atmospheres by calculating the reflected spectra and the transmission spectra for the terrestrial exoplanets. We assume the Temperature-Pressure profile to be the same as that for our Earth's atmosphere. We considered Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon-dioxide, Methane, Water, etc. in the atmospheric composition of the Earth-like exoplanets. And Nitrogen and Carbon-dioxide abundance in the atmosphere of prebiotic Earth-like planets. The reflected spectra and the transmission spectra are calculated by solving the multiple scattering radiative transfer equation and using the discrete space theory. Hence we calculate the Geometric albedo of modern as well as prebiotic Earth orbiting around F, G, K, and M spectral types of stars. The absorption lines of the molecules considered are seen in all the spectra, thus verifying the calculations. We also verified our reflected spectra for the case of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting around Sun-like stars with the observed reflected spectra for the case of Earth. We also consider the effect of the clouds at different heights on the transmission spectra. We also studied the effect of the change in greenhouse gases on the reflected spectra as well as the transmission spectra. In this talk, I will discuss our theoretical models for the atmospheric characterization of different cases of terrestrial planets and prebiotic Earth-like exoplanets. And how we can give the targets for the potentially habitable planets to future space missions.
Pre-main sequence variables in young open clusters by Tirthendu Sinha, Saurabh Sharma.
Variability is one of the most important features of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. Several mechanisms are known to induce these variability, for exam- ple irregular distribution of cool spots on stellar photosphere, variable hot spots, obscuration from dust, instability in disk, change in accretion rate etc. The evolution of disks and the accretion rates play a prominent role in the non-periodic variability whereas presence of cool and/or hot spots on the photosphere of rotating stars may produce periodic/quasi-periodic changes in their light curve. The period of a rotating star is direct indicator of its rotation period and hence related to angular momentum. In this work, we are studying the variability properties of young stars in a sample of young star clusters in our galaxy. With the help of HR diagram of these clusters, we can constrain the physical parameters such as age and mass of the PMS variable stars and it is easy to check the correlation of different physical parameters (period/amplitude, accretion rate etc.) with age and mass. Typically the period of the variables ranges from few hours to 15-20 days while amplitude ranges from 0.05 mag to 2 mag. The amplitude of the variables increases with IR excess where as rotation speed seems to slow down with increase in IR excess. Class II and Class III objects show distinguished features in terms of their period and amplitude. We will discuss these properties of PMS variable stars.
Isolating cool giant stars in unresolved galaxies using “fluctuation eigenspectra” by Russell J. Smith.
When observing an unresolved galaxy, each resolution element in an IFU datacube provides a “sample” of stars from the underlying stellar population. Even if individual stars cannot be studied, the variation between spectra for different samples carries information about the spectra of the bright-but-rare giant stars which dominate the stochastic fluctuations. Using Poisson-sampled spectral synthesis models I show that the variation can be efficiently extracted using an eigenspectrum decomposition, with >99% of the variance captured in just three eigenspectra, from which the spectral sequence of cool giant stars can in preinciple be reconstructed. I demonstrate the method using MUSE Narrow-Field Mode AO data for NGC 5128, finding close agreement with the models for the first fluctuation eigenspectrum. With IFUs on the ELTs, we should be able to exploit this method to isolate the giant stars in the cores of giant elliptical galaxies. Strong lensing is usually considered to be a "rare" event, because the two galaxies must be very closely aligned along a single line of sight. For example, a search based on looking for blended spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey found only ~100 lenses from ~1,000,000 observed targets. However, all massive galaxies have sufficient mass density to cause multiple for a well-aligned source, and only the brightest sources are truly rare. As we observe ever more deeply, the Universe presents an increasingly rich background screen of potentially-lensed faint galaxies; eventually, every massive galaxy should be surrounded by multiply-imaged sources. IFU spectrographs provide the essential spectral and spatial contrast needed to isolate the emission lines from the distant sources, even in the presence of a bright foreground galaxy, and to identify faint counter-images unambiguously. Deep blank-field observations with MUSE already reach the necessary (unlensed) surface density of emission-line source, e.g. one per 14 square arcsec in 30 hr from the Bacon et al. HUDF observation, compared to a 10-20 square arcsec multiply-imaged area in the source-plane behind a typical massive galaxy. Allowing for lensing magnification, MUSE can reach the necessary depth in ~10 hours, but this remains prohibitive for large samples. By contrast, with ELTs, exposures of only ~0.5-1.0 hr should be enough to obtain strong lensing constraints "to order" for any massive galaxy. A key "use case" for this technique will be to observe already-known lens systems, to discover additional distant background sources, and hence establish a sample of double-source-plane lenses. The configurations of such systems (e.g. the relative size of the Einstein rings) are sensitive to ratios of distances between the lens and the two sources, and hence can be exploited as a cosmological optical bench experiment to probe the geometry of the Universe. In particular, this method can measure the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w, and thus distinguish a cosmological constant from "quintessence'' or other dynamical dark energy models. In this talk I will outline the current status of IFU lens search programmes, with an emphasis on the double-source-plane cosmology case, and discuss the capabilities of HARMONI and other upcoming ELT instruments for programmes of this kind.
Kinematic and dynamical modelling of the “Jackpot” triple-source lens by Hannah C. Turner & Russell J. Smith.
I present early results from a kinematic modelling analysis of the unique J0946+1006 (‘Jackpot’) triple-source lens system, where a single massive galaxy causes multiple imaging of three background sources at very different redshifts. Deep IFU spectroscopic data were obtained using the MUSE instrument on the VLT which, compared to previous single-slit observations, provides full azimuthal area coverage, high sensitivity (5hr integration) and high angular resolution (0.5" FWHM). As a result we can measure the two-dimensional stellar kinematic properties out to ~10 kpc, as well as resolving the inner profile inwards to ~1 kpc. We have implemented template-spectra fitting methods to fit the kinematics of both the z=0.222 lens galaxy and the z=0.609 bright arc background source. I will show early results from analysing the kinematics using JAM dynamical models to constrain the slope of the total mass density profile. This MUSE analysis points the way to future super-deep high resolution IFU observations of more strong lensing systems e.g. with HARMONI on the ESO ELT. Such a programme will be able both to discover more examples of multiple-source-plane systems (by finding additional faint background sources), and simultaneously provide high-precision kinematic data to model the lens mass distribution, and to search for dark substructures via their perturbations on the bright lensed arcs.
Extended H-alpha Emission of a Spatially Resolved Hyper Luminous Infrared Galaxy: a Science Case for the GIRMOS Instrument by Paolo Turri, Scott C. Chapman.
The Hyper Luminous Infrared Galaxy HATLAS J084933.4+021442 (z=2.4) is known for harbouring an AGN with a strong broad H-alpha line, hinting at a SMBH of 2x10^9 Solar masses. Using the NIFS integral field spectrograph together with the Altair adaptive optics system on the Gemini North telescope, we have mapped the spatial distribution of its near infrared spectrum. From the data, we have identified a H-alpha emission that extends for more than 8 kpc from the center of the galaxy. The observation of this target is part of the GIRMOS Preparatory Survey, a precursor to the survey of z~2 star-forming galaxies using GIRMOS, a multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) integral field spectrograph. GIRMOS is being developed for the Gemini North telescope, and will also serve as a pathfinder for the Thirty Meter Telescope. Our on-sky approach to the preparatory survey is complemented by the use of data from the SINS/zC-SINF survey together with the end-to-end simulation of the GIRMOS point-spread function. Our goal is to simulate spectral data cubes of distant star-forming galaxies, anticipating the effects on the data quality under different conditions of the atmosphere and instrument configuration.
van de Ven
Cutting-edge population-orbital dynamical models to capitalize on resolved spectroscopic observations with ELTs by Glenn van de Ven (University of Vienna), Ling Zhu (Shanghai Astronomical Observatory), Ryan Leaman (University of Vienna), et al..
Modern integral field unit spectrographs offer the ability to map the spatial distribution of the motions, ages, and chemical abundances of stars in galaxies. This unprecedented detailed view of galaxies offered by the data demands equally revolutionary analysis and modelling tools. For example, rather than simple integrated quantities within a given projected spatial region, novel tools developed in our group allow for the recovery of the intrinsic distributions of ages, chemical abundances and kinematics of separate components within a galaxy. Our cutting-edge population-orbital (Schwarzschild) dynamical models have already enabled several breakthroughs, including (1) the detailed inventory of the intrinsic stellar orbit distribution in present-day galaxies across the Hubble sequence, (2) the recovery of the assembly and heating of stellar disks across cosmic time, (3) the first quantitative recovery of an ancient massive merger in a galaxy outside the Local Group, and (4) the accurate measurements of luminous and dark matter (black holes and dark halos) in dwarf to giant galaxies. We will demonstrate with these key results the exciting prospects for applying our tools to groundbreaking resolved spectroscopic observations with ELTs and so transform our understanding of the build-up of the luminous and dark components of galaxies.
Detecting Biosignatures of Nearby Rocky Exoplanets: Simulations of High Spectral Resolution Observations with the ELTs by Sophia Vaughan, Jayne Birkby, Raymond Pierrehumbert (University of Oxford).
The imminent arrival of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) will finally deliver the observational power capable of assessing the habitability of nearby rocky exoplanets. These mostly non-transiting worlds can be characterized with the High Resolution Spectroscopy (HRS, R>20,000) technique; a powerful method for revealing exoplanet atmospheres that uses the Doppler shift to disentangle the planet from the spectrum of its host star. Oxygen, a key biosignature, is accessible with HRS at 760nm where the planet spectrum contains essentially only reflected light, which brings both new challenges and advantages for HRS. Here, we present our new simulator that explores these in the context of the nearest rocky exoplanet, Proxima b. We simulated one night of high resolution (R=100,000) optical reflected light spectroscopy of the Proxima Centauri system based on an ELT-sized telescope, and noise properties of the ELT. We used model planet spectra from the Carl Sagan Institute designed specifically for Proxima b for Earth-like, eroded Earth-like and anoxic atmospheres, which include the reflected stellar lines of the M5.5V host star for active and inactive states. We find that with HRS alone, the 10-7 optical contrast of Proxima b is too low to allow a significant detection in this scenario and, if the contrast were higher, the Doppler shift of the planet is likely too slow to extract a signal. This indicates that High Contrast Imaging (HCI) in combination with optical high resolution integral field spectrographs, or a careful multi-epoch HRS approach, is needed to detect the O2 A-band for our nearest rocky exoplanet. The simulator is highly versatile and we are now extending it to other systems and atmospheres, alongside adding HCI to simulate the early IFS instruments expected for the ELTs, including HARMONI, METIS, and GMagAO-X+IFS.
A Statistical and Semi-Spatially Resolved Study of Cool Galactic Winds at z~1 by Weichen Wang.
It is well known that galactic winds, as a form of stellar feedback, play an important role in the formation of galaxies, particularly at z~1 and above. However, it is not clear where inside galaxies this form of stellar feedback occurs, namely, whether winds are launched from the galaxy centers and/or outskirts. We will present a semi-spatially resolved study of the winds of around 30 massive star-forming galaxies at z~1. UV absorption lines are used as tracers of the winds, and they come from the very deep spectra obtained with the Keck/DEIMOS Multi-Object Spectrograph. By stacking the 2D spectra of the 30 galaxies, which reached a total of 200 hours in terms of exposure time, we are able to study winds as a function of the galactocentric distance. We will present measurements of the line equivalent widths and wind velocities for the inner and outer parts of the galaxies and discuss where the winds are launched from. Finally, we compare our measurements with what has been found for typical massive star-forming galaxies at z~0.
Reliable stellar abundances of individual stars with the MUSE integral-field spectrograph by Zixian Wang(王梓先), Michael R. Hayden, Sanjib Sharma, Maosheng Xiang, Yuan-Sen Ting, Joss Bland-Hawthorn.
We present a novel approach to deriving stellar labels from stars observed in MUSE fields making use of data-driven machine learning methods. Taking advantage of the comparable spectral properties (resolution, wavelength coverage) of the LAMOST and MUSE instruments, we adopt the Data-Driven Payne (DD-Payne) model used on LAMOST observations and apply it to stars observed in MUSE fields. Remarkably, in spite of instrumental differences, we are able to determine stellar labels to be better than 70K in Teff, 0.15 dex in logg, and 0.1 dex in several abundances ([Fe/H],[Mg/Fe],[Si/Fe], etc) for current MUSE observations. To date, MUSE has been used to target 13,000 fields across the southern sky since it was first commissioned six years ago and it is unique in its ability to study dense star fields such as globular clusters or the Milky Way bulge. Our method will enable the automated determination of stellar parameters for all stars in these fields. Additionally, it opens the door for applications to data collected by other spectrographs having resolution similar to LAMOST. With the upcoming BlueMUSE and MAVIS, we will gain access to a whole new range of chemical abundances, especially critical s-process elements such as [Y/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] that provide key age diagnostics for stellar targets.
GMT/MANIFEST Integral-field spectroscopy with GMACS interface by Tayyaba Zafar, Jonathan Lawrence, Jessica Zheng, Celestina Lacombe.
The Many Instrument Fiber System (MANIFEST) is a facility fiber system for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). MANIFEST will be capable of using any current and upcoming instrument at the GMT as an interface and make full use of the 20 arcmin field of view of the telescope. The MANIFEST concept uses “Starbugs” – self-motile fiber heads deployed on a glass plate. The current planned first light instrument for GMT are G-CLEF (an echelle resolution spectrograph) and GMACS (low/mid resolution spectrograph), where for the latter MANIFEST together with multiplexing, offer two modes of integral-field spectroscopy. One IFS mode will be high-sensitivity mode with 100 IFUs (each with 1.5'' FoV) and other will be multi-IFU mode with 20 IFUs with a FoV of 3.0''. These modes are required for nearby galaxy surveys, Intergalactic medium tomography, spatially resolved studies of distant universe.
NGC 147 Corroborates the Break in the Stellar Mass-Stellar Metallicity Relation for Galaxies by Zhuyun Zhuang, Evan Kirby, Nicha Leethochawalit and Mithi de los Reyes.
The stellar mass-stellar metallicity relation (MZR) is an essential approach to probe the chemical evolution of galaxies. It reflects the balance between galactic feedback and gravitational potential as a function of stellar mass. However, the current MZR of local dwarf satellite galaxies (M* <~ 1e8 Msun, measured from resolved stellar spectroscopy) may not be reconcilable with that of more massive galaxies (M* >~ 1e9.5 Msun, measured from integrated-light spectroscopy). Such a discrepancy may result from a systematic difference between the two methods, or it may indicate a break in the MZR around 1e9 Msun. To address this question, we measured the stellar metallicity of NGC 147 from integrated light using the Palomar Cosmic Web Imager (PCWI). We compared the stellar metallicity estimates from integrated light with the measurements from resolved stellar spectroscopy and found them to be consistent within 0.1 dex. On the other hand, the high-mass MZR overpredicts the metallicity by 0.6 dex at the mass of NGC 147. Therefore, our results tentatively suggest that the discrepancy between the low-mass MZR and high-mass MZR should not be attributed to a systematic difference in techniques. Instead, real physical processes cause the transition in the MZR. In addition, we discovered a positive age gradient in the innermost region and a negative metallicity gradient from the resolved stars at larger radii, suggesting a possible outside-in formation of NGC 147. However, it is possible that the small difference discovered in NGC 147 is underestimated because the metallicity gradient is relatively mild. With the help of ELT, a systematic study of large sample can be conducted to investigate whether the current stellar mass-stellar metallicity still holds for quiescent galaxies with steeper metallicity gradients.